2012 Venus Transit Horoscope
For instance, there is a series which ended in BC, and the series which includes only started in AD The early Greek astronomers called Venus by two names— Hesperus the evening star and Phosphorus the morning star. There is no evidence that any of these cultures knew of the transits. In the Dresden Codex , the Maya charted Venus's full cycle, but despite their precise knowledge of its course, there is no mention of a transit. The Persian polymath Avicenna claimed to have observed Venus as a spot on the Sun.
This is possible, as there was a transit on May 24, , but Avicenna did not give the date of his observation, and modern scholars have questioned whether he could have observed the transit from his location at that time; he may have mistaken a sunspot for Venus. He used his transit observation to help establish that Venus was, at least sometimes, below the Sun in Ptolemaic cosmology,  i.
In , Johannes Kepler became the first person to predict a transit of Venus, by predicting the event. His methods were not sufficiently accurate to predict that the transit would not be visible in most of Europe, and as a consequence, nobody was able to use his prediction to observe the phenomenon. His friend, William Crabtree , also observed this transit from Broughton , near Manchester. Horrocks corrected Kepler's calculation for the orbit of Venus, realized that transits of Venus would occur in pairs 8 years apart, and so predicted the transit of Horrocks focused the image of the Sun through a simple telescope onto a piece of paper, where the image could be safely observed.
After observing for most of the day, he was lucky to see the transit as clouds obscuring the Sun cleared at about , just half an hour before sunset. He estimated that distance to be The observations were not published until , well after Horrocks's death. In Scottish mathematician James Gregory had suggested in his Optica Promota that observations of a transit of the planet Mercury , at widely spaced points on the surface of the Earth, could be used to calculate the solar parallax and hence the astronomical unit using triangulation. Aware of this, a young Edmond Halley made observations of such a transit on 28 October O.
Transit of Venus - Wikipedia
Halley was not satisfied that the resulting calculation of the solar parallax at 45" was accurate. In a paper published in , and a more refined one in , he proposed that more accurate calculations could be made using measurements of a transit of Venus, although the next such event was not due until In an attempt to observe the first transit of the pair, astronomers from Britain, Austria and France traveled to destinations around the world, including Siberia, Newfoundland and Madagascar.
The existence of an atmosphere on Venus was concluded by Mikhail Lomonosov on the basis of his observation of the transit of Venus of from the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Lomonosov attributed that effect to refraction of solar rays through an atmosphere; he also reported the appearance of a sliver around the part of Venus that had just entered the Sun's disk during the initial phase of transit. To make a decisive test, a group of researchers carried out experimental reconstruction of Lomonosov's discovery of Venusian atmosphere with antique refractors during the transit of Venus on 5—6 June The Czech astronomer Christian Mayer was invited by Catherine the Great to observe the transit in Saint Petersburg with Anders Johan Lexell , while other members of the Russian Academy of Sciences went to eight other locations in the Russian Empire , under the general coordination of Stepan Rumovsky.
Observations were made by a number of groups in the British colonies in America. In Philadelphia , the American Philosophical Society erected three temporary observatories and appointed a committee, of which David Rittenhouse was the head. Observations were made by a group led by Dr.
How to celebrate the transit of Venus
Benjamin West in Providence, Rhode Island ,  and published in For his trouble he died in an epidemic of yellow fever there shortly after completing his observations. The unfortunate Guillaume Le Gentil spent eight years travelling in an attempt to observe either of the transits. His unsuccessful journey led to him losing his wife and possessions and being declared dead his efforts became the basis of the play Transit of Venus by Maureen Hunter.
Unfortunately, it was impossible to time the exact moment of the start and end of the transit because of the phenomenon known as the " black drop effect ". This effect was long thought to be due to Venus's thick atmosphere, and initially it was held to be the first real evidence that Venus had an atmosphere.
However, recent studies demonstrate that it is an optical effect caused by the smearing of the image of Venus by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere or imperfections in the viewing apparatus. The precision was less than had been hoped for because of the black drop effect, but still a considerable improvement on Horrocks's calculations.
Maximilian Hell published the results of his expedition in , in Copenhagen. Transit observations in and allowed this value to be refined further. Three expeditions—from Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States—were sent to the Kerguelen Archipelago for the observations. As a result, the need for parallax calculations has been superseded.
A number of scientific organizations headed by the European Southern Observatory ESO organized a network of amateur astronomers and students to measure Earth's distance from the Sun during the transit. There was a good deal of interest in the transit as scientists attempted to measure the pattern of light dimming as Venus blocked out some of the Sun's light, in order to refine techniques that they hope to use in searching for extrasolar planets.
The transit provided scientists numerous research opportunities as well, in particular in regard to the study of exoplanets. Research of the Venus transit includes:   . This is because the length of eight Earth years is almost the same as 13 years on Venus, so every eight years the planets are in roughly the same relative positions.
Six Millennium Catalog of Venus Transits: 2000 BCE to 4000 CE
This approximate conjunction usually results in a pair of transits, but it is not precise enough to produce a triplet, since Venus arrives 22 hours earlier each time. The last transit not to be part of a pair was in Thus after years the transits of Venus return. The transit is a member of the year cycle 1. The transit is a member of 2. The transit is a member of 3 and the transit is a member of 4.
The transit is a member of 1 and so on. However, the ascending node December transits of the orbit of Venus moves backwards after each years so the transit of is the last member of series 3 instead of series 1. The descending node June transits moves forwards, so the transit of is the last member of 2. Over longer periods of time, new series of transits will start and old series will end. Unlike the saros series for lunar eclipses, it is possible for a transit series to restart after a hiatus. The transit series also vary much more in length than the saros series.
Sometimes Venus only grazes the Sun during a transit.
by Fred Espenak, GSFC Planetary Systems Laboratory
In this case it is possible that in some areas of the Earth a full transit can be seen while in other regions there is only a partial transit no second or third contact. The last transit of this type was on 6 December , and the next such transit will occur on 13 December Such a transit last occurred on 19 November BC, and the next transit of this type will occur on 14 December It can be demonstrated by closing an eye and holding a finger in front of a smaller more distant object; when you open the other eye and close the first, the finger will no longer be in front of the object.
The simultaneous occurrence of a transit of Mercury and a transit of Venus does occur, but extremely infrequently.
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Such an event last occurred on 22 September , BC and will next occur on 26 July 69, , and again on 29 March , The next solar eclipse occurring during a transit of Venus will be on 5 April 15, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the astronomical phenomenon.
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For other uses, see Transit of Venus disambiguation. Main article: Transit of Venus, Further information: Transit of Venus observed from Tahiti. Further information: Transit of Venus, and Transit of Venus, Play media. Astronomy portal Solar system portal. Earthsky communications Inc. Retrieved 2 June September Astronomical Society of the Channel Island of Guernsey. Retrieved 1 March Planetary Society web site. The Planetary Society. Retrieved 22 May November Archived from the original on 8 August Retrieved 25 September Retrieved 8 December Christian Science Monitor.
Retrieved 6 June European Space Agency. Retrieved 26 September Archived from the original on 24 June Fourmilab Switzerland. Retrieved 21 September The Ancient Maya 5th ed. Stanford University Press. Maya Observations of the 13th Century transits of Venus? Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union.
Bibcode : tvnv. Retrieved 31 August Ragep Thomas Hockey ed. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers. Bibcode : Cent March Retrieved 11 September International Astronomical Union. Retrieved 10 May Jeremiah Horrocks—young genius and first Venus transit observer. University of Central Lancashire. Mathematics Magazine. Philosophical Transactions.
XXIX : Babylon to Voyager and beyond: a history of planetary astronomy. Oxford University Press. We only get two transits of Venus about every years, and they comes in pairs at eight years apart. So the last transit of Venus was in , and the next one will be in the year A transit of Venus is your normal Sun conjunct Venus we usually get, but in this case, Venus passes across the face of the Sun. You can see in the picture on the right, taken during the transit of Venus, that this planets influence on us and the earth must be intensified, just look at her being engulfed by the fire of the Sun.
We have the strongest influence in over a generation with Uranus square Pluto on June There is the June 4 Lunar Eclipse just a day before, and Venus is retrograde conjunct minor planet Chaos, and square Mars. I have looked back at the charts of previous transits of Venus, and none had the intensity of this one. I believe that June will really kick off all the drama that has been predicted in our Astrology Forecast. Now Sun and Venus square Mars does indicate conflict. Uranus square Pluto will only make this volatile set of aspects even more explosive.
The dramatic change is now made very personal with the Moon on Pluto. The Moon also rules our past, and with Venus retrograde, some of us could be in for some intense encounters with old lovers and even current ones. This was a theme that kept coming up in the Venus retrograde post. The overall picture emerging is one of facing up to reality in our relationships. If you have been deceitful in some way, been playing around or have an addiction, then you will likely face a lot of hostility from your partner or even close friends.
The great intensity shown in this chart means that any built up frustrations, resentment or anger, which has been poisoning a relationship, must now be released. It ties the picture together really, intense feelings of love and hate, exposing the evil, fighting it, then filling the void a higher form of love. The people who will feel the transit of Venus the strongest, and probably find it most difficult will be decan 2 Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces.
However decan 2 Aries, Leo, Libra and Aquarius should do particularly well out of it. Hi If venus receives only 1 aspect from mercury sextile and no other aspects at all i nthe birth chart could this mean that this person is not able to receive love from others, lacking the venus quality? His venus is in aq in Thanks Eva.
I am living intricately and profoundly through everything described in all these posts and pages here… and too dumbfounded and overloaded, angry and emotional about it all to share any details. Fated… unavoidable… too much. You know, the odd thing about all of this is I know that it is true. Planetary movements effect life on earth, and the types of experiences we undergo however this specific transit did not effect me in this way.