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Back Art Gardening. Back Sport Books. Log In. Wishlist 0. You have no items in your shopping cart. Be the first to review this product. A Student's Vocabulary for Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic, Updated Edition has been a standard resource for students of Hebrew and Aramaic for over 30 years, this new edition has updated formatting and transliterations.
The book provides vocabulary lists of Hebrew and Aramaic words based on frequency. Availability: Day Delivery. Overview Details Reviews. Products specifications. Write your own review Close Review Form. As this is to be a critical review, you shouldclearly articulate for yourself and your readers the criteria you use toevaluate the dictionaries. Pay particular attention to: a. Word Meaning issues e. Discuss the ways in which the dictionaries are or are not appropriate for your purposes e.
What kinds of texts are included? Illustrate your review with appropriate examples from the dictionar-ies. Imagine a class of students that you might reasonably expect toteach. What criteria would you use to select a dictionary for the class-room? To ask students to buy for themselves? For yourself? Dictionaries are designed to provide readily accessible information aboutthe words of one or more languages. Many dictionaries provide far moreinformation than that.
They may include lists of colleges and universities,US presidents, the US constitution, and the like. While they may expandtheir domains in certain respects, they may narrow them in others. They also typically provide considerably more grammatical informationand examples of the uses of the words than dictionaries prepared for nativespeakers. Fearful or wary of being supplanted; apprehen- sive of losing affection or position. Resentful or bitter in rivalry; envious: jealous of the success of others. Inclined to suspect rivalry. Having to do with or arising from feelings of envy, apprehension, or bitterness: jealous thoughts.
Vigilant in guarding something: We are jealous of our good name. Intolerant of disloyalty or infidelity; auto- cratic: a jealous God. Dictionaries differ in the categories of information they include in theirentries and in the ways in which they organize that information. Editors tryto chose the most readable presentation for each entry.
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But practices vary,and teachers should be aware of the variations and choose appropriate dic-tionaries for themselves and their students. Entry and entry-wordThe entire paragraph quoted above is called an entry; the first bolded word of the entry is its head- or entry-word. Ordinary dictionaries facili-tate finding information about the headwords by arranging them alpha-betically.
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Word MeaningExerciseWhat advantages and disadvantages might come from arranging theentries of a dictionary alphabetically? A typical native speaker dictionary provides substantial information ineach entry. In the entry above, the conventional spelling is given by theentry word; if there had been another well-accepted spelling, it would havebeen included after the entry word. The spelling includes syllabication in-formation, in this dictionary by means of a raised dot in the entry word.
Syllabication in the entry word tells writers where they may hyphenate theword at the end of a line of type; it is only indirectly related to pronuncia-tion and is becoming irrelevant as we rely on the justification programs inour word processors to space letters for us. PronunciationThe pronunciation of the word is given in parentheses after the headword.
The sound value of each letter in the pronunciation guide isindicated by reference to an English word. AHD, likemany dictionaries, repeats the list of reference words on each second page. Syllabication or syllabification in the pronunciation section sepa-rates the word into its component spoken syllables and typically also in-dicates stress.
AHD usesthe nine traditional parts of speech: adjective, adverb, article, conjunction,interjection, noun, preposition, pronoun, and verb. It distinguishes definiteand indefinite articles and transitive, intransitive, and auxiliary verbs. It alsomarks some singular and plural nouns and lists prefixes and suffixes.
OED is also un-usually fine-grained as it designates nouns as either of action or of agent n. Many entry words belong to several different parts of speech, and differ-ent dictionaries have different ways of handling this. Some include them allin a single entry, called a combined entry by AHD. Others give a separateentry to each different part of speech that the word belongs to, essentiallytreating each different part of speech associated with a spelling as a homo-graph see below.
They try to provide the grammatical information thatis particularly helpful for learners. Similarly, while mostadjectives may occur before the noun they modify as well as in the predicateof a subject complement clause such as Frederika is very tall, some adjectivesmay occur only before their nouns e.
CIDE uses [before n]for the former and [after n] somewhat misleadingly for the latter. WNWDmerely provides a very few illustrative examples of the predicative use, which,of course, do not tell a reader whether he or she may use the adjective beforea noun. Run-onsDictionaries also differ in how they deal with words and other expressionsthat are related to the headword. However, if themeanings of the derived words are not readily predictable from the meaningof the entry word and the derivation, then the derived word may get its ownentry.
For example, AHD separates hereditarian from hereditary.
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Word Meaning Dictionary practices are not always consistent. While AHD lists retalia-tion, retaliative, retaliatory, and retaliator as run-ons at the end of the entryfor retaliate, it gives retrench and retrenchment separate entries, even thoughthe meanings of the latter are readily derivable from those of the former. Check your dictionary for its policies. In this case, modern Englishjealousy is descended from Middle English jelous, which was borrowed fromthe Old French word gelos, which in turn came from Vulgar i. AHD is unusually helpful in providing for many wordsa paragraph-length Word History separate from the etymological sketchwithin the entry.
UsageUsage is the study of the ways in which expressions of a language are usedby the speakers of that language, especially in formal speaking and writing. Linguists view usage descriptively, that is, they study how expressions are ac-tually used. Others adopt a prescriptive approach to usage, that is, they seekto impose rules of correctness based on criteria other than the practices ofthe users of the language. English dictionary users expect guidance on howexpressions are or should be used, especially when usages are controversial.
And indeed, many dictionary editors see it as their duty to provide authori-tative advice on the usage of the headwords or of particular senses. For manywords whose usage is controversial, AHD provides a very useful, critical,paragraph-length Usage Note, based on comments by its usage panel leav-ened by the linguistic expertise of its Usage Consultant, Geoffrey Nunberg.
Other dictionaries use other devices to provide usage information.
As dictionaries differ on whether they include usage ad-vice as such, as well as on the number of usage labels and their meanings, Delahunty and Garvey their readers are best advised to read their front matters. Some dictionaries embed usage information as though it were grammaticalinformation. A dictionary that ignores or treats a controversial usage issue as astraightforward grammatical one misinforms its readers.
Thisputs the grammatical horse before the usage cart. Languages change, and oneway in which they change is by extending the range of ways in which wordsmay be used, for instance by broadening the scope of a non-gradable adjectiveby allowing it to be modified. Unique is only a non-gradable adjective if speak-ers of English treat it consistently that way. What CIDE ought to have done was alertits users to the fact that under some circumstances, some people will objectto modified unique. It is best to read the front matter to find out whatyour lexicographers have been up to, though they are not always consistent.
ExerciseCheck your dictionary for how it deals with usage issues, and thencheck unique, hopefully, infer, irregardless. Dictionaries tend to lump several different linguistic categories together un-der Usage Labels. Lexical fieldsWords may have different though related meanings in different fields; thatis, in different topics, disciplines, work and play domains, and the like. Word Meaningexample, the word morphology is used in linguistics, biology, and variousother sciences.
Dictionaries have a variety of ways of dealing with field infor-mation. The inflections are typically abbreviated byomitting the unchanged part of the word, for example: Delahunty and Garvey a. Where individual inflected forms wouldoccur at some distance from the main entry in the alphabetical listing, theymay be cross referenced to it, as in WNWD: sang. In AHD, they fol-low the part of speech label.
In WNWD, they follow the etymology. These are typically given in words, though there are pic-torial dictionaries for children and many dictionaries include illustrations ofvarious sorts. The definitions given for a word in one dictionary are likely tobe very similar to the definitions given for that word in other dictionaries.
This is because modern English dictionaries are representatives of a lexi-cographical tradition that is many centuries old; it is also because craftingdefinitions within the conventions imposed by that tradition is constrainingand difficult, and because lexicographers look to see how their competitorshave crafted their definitions. We will look at some of the devices lexicogra-phers use to craft definitions below.
However, as our examples have shown andas a quick flick through a dictionary will confirm , many, if not most, entrywords are associated with multiple meanings. Given that, lexicographershave to decide on the best strategy to represent the form-meaning connec-tion. Should there be one entry with lots of senses? Or should there be mul-tiple entries whose headwords are spelled identically but whose meaningsdiffer?
Lexicographers have developed strategies for dealing with such situa-tions. Generally, if the meanings associated with a single spelling are his Word Meaningtorically descended from the same earlier form, and are clearly closelyrelated to each other, then they will be grouped under a single headword. Such a headword is polysemous. Once dictionaries allow polysemous entries, the editors have to decide onhow to order the senses in an entry. As most words have more than a single meaning, most entrieswill be organized in this way. WNWD p. WNWD uses a mix of historical and logical ordering: The senses of an entry have, wherever possible, been arranged in seman- tic order from the etymology to the most recent sense so that there is a logical, progressive flow showing the development of the word and the relationship of its senses to one another.
The firstsense is the original and the others derive from that both logically and his-torically. Delahunty and Garvey Dictionaries may provide separate, cross-referenced entries for separatespellings of words, even where the meanings are identical. Usually only onehead word will be provided with a full entry. For example, WNWD has theentries je. If both spellings and meanings have diverged, then alphabetization willseparate the entries, and any cross reference may be in the historical sec-tion of the entry.
The separate spell-ings usefully separate the meanings for us. Note, however, that flower andflour are pronounced identically, so they are homophones. If a single spelling has two or more quite unrelated meanings, then lexi-cographers will typically assign a separate entry for each set of unrelatedmeaning s. WNWD distinguishes homographs by superscript numerals: dam1.
Sense relationsSo far we have looked at the overall organization of entries. If the dictionary is not a bilingual one, then the definitions are expressedin the same language as the headword, so there is a built-in circularity. CIDE uses sev-eral criteria besides frequency in choosing words for its defining vocabulary:the words must have the same meaning in both US and British English, beeasy for learners to understand, be up-to-date, not be easily confused withother English words, not be easily confused with foreign words, and be useful Native speaker dictionaries assume that their users have a much largervocabulary, although the fact that modern dictionaries typically includeeven the most basic words means that they must define these words in lessbasic terms.
For example: hole. Inher lively and lucid study Words in the Mind, Jean Aitchison , 3rd ed. For some speakers, chasingevokes the notion of speed, while pursuing does not necessarily do so. Partial synonymy is much more common than full synonymy. Typically,synonyms are distinguished by subtle meaning differences that challengelexicographers, linguists, and second language learners, though generallynot native speakers. Usage labels may help to distinguish among partial syn-onyms: words may differ in style to stick to something is neutral, to cleave tosomething is poetic , or in the places where they are typically used elevator isUS usage, lift is British.
Delahunty and Garvey ExerciseThe following sets of words are partial synonyms. Identify how theyare similar and how they differ: car-automobile; silver-argent; crux-cross; disconcert-rattle; truck-lorry; soda-pop-soft drink; cat-kitty;make-fabricate; facile-skillful; irritate-annoy-aggravate; woodchuck-groundhog; buy-purchase. Putting the words in sentences will help youdistinguish among them. So will consulting a good dictionary. After the synonyms, they providelists of antonyms.
Antonyms are traditionally defined as words with op-posite meanings, such as up and down, good and bad, and the like, thoughthey must share some important aspect of their meanings. For instance, largeand small share the notion of size. Complementary antonyms are pairs of words such that if one word ap-plies the other cannot, for example, alive and dead. If a person is alive, heor she cannot be dead, and vice versa. Other examples are hit-miss, pass-fail,open-closed.
Gradable antonyms denote opposing positions on some scale; for ex-ample, hot and cold indicate opposite positions on a temperature scale. Be-cause scales are continuous phenomena, we can indicate varying positionson them by modifying the words, e. The values between and beyond the antonyms may also be lexicalized. In between hot and cold we have warm, tepid, cool, and beyond hot and coldthere is burning, scalding, and freezing, among others. Other gradable pairsinclude tall-short, wide-narrow, big-small, strong-weak, heavy-light, high-low. You probably noticed that the members of these pairs are not entirelyparallel; one seems to be more basic, or unmarked, than the other.
Weuse the basic, unmarked form to ask questions when we have no specificexpectation that the marked form describes the situation, i. For example, ordinarily ifwe want to know how strong someone is we simply ask How strong is he orshe? If, however, we assume that this person is weaker than some norm, thenwe use the marked member of the word pair: How weak is he or she?
Word Meaningmeasuring; for instance, a small pumpkin is very likely to be much largerthan a big pea. Non-gradable antonyms cannot be modified, often because they denoteabsolute differences; e. Other non-gradables include absolute, sonic, utter. Reversive antonyms are words that represent movement in opposite di-rections, such as advance-retreat, go away -come back , ascend-descend, rise-fall, go-return, fill-empty, open-close. Conversive antonyms represent the same situation from two points ofview. For example, if the cat is higher than the bird, then the bird is lowerthan the cat.
The vertical relationship between the bird and the cat can beviewed from two points of view: lower than and higher than. Other examples include buy-sell, give-receive, own-belong to, above-below. While synonyms and antonyms are words at the same semantic level,word meanings may also be hierarchically related to each other. For ex-ample, a mallard is a kind of duck which is a kind of bird. The lower terms are the hyponyms ofthe higher terms, which are the superordinates or hypernyms of the lowerterms.
Similarly, the meaning of rose includes the meaning of flower. Con-sequently, if something is a rose then it must also be a flower. Conversely,the set of things we call roses is included in the set of things we call flowers. A superordinate term may have many subordinate terms, called co-hyp-onyms or coordinates: Delahunty and Garvey Saw Chop saw Miter saw Table saw Ripsaw Hand saw HacksawIn this instance, the meaning and the form saw occur in each of the hypo-nyms, which, in spite of their spellings, are all compound words.
We mustmention here that not all groups of words that could be regarded as consti-tuting a set of coordinates have a lexical superordinate. As far as we know,there is no single term that encompasses doors and windows, even thoughthese are openings in walls for light, air, people, and refrigerators to passthrough. Dictionaries make extensive use of hyponymy to define words. Soan orator is a kind of person and an oration is a kind of speech. The remain-ing parts of the definition tell us what kind of person an orator is and whatkind of speech an oration is, as well as how orators are distinct from otherkinds of persons, and orations from other kinds of speeches.
There are several types of these. When these relationshipsapply to unified objects, they are called partonymy, or less transparently,meronymy. For example, the covers and pages are parts of books; the engine,trunk, carburetor, and fan belt are parts of cars.
The crankshaft is a part ofthe engine of a car. WNWD defines cap. Because hyponymy and partonymy differ in the semantics of the rela-tionships—kind of vs. Buta standard poodle is also a kind of dog. On the other hand, a lower order termin a partonymy may or may not be a part of the superordinate; for instance,a page is a part of a book and a book may be part of a library, but it wouldcertainly be odd to claim that a page is part of a library.
Word Meaningjects but to entities associated with each other in a situation. Metonymyis the basis for many shifts of meaning. It involves the use of an expressiondenoting one person or thing to refer to someone or something associatedwith it. For instance, a waiter might say, Thefishburger wants more French fries, to identify a particular customer and theirrequest.
The use of personal names to refer to events that the individualnamed is responsible for is also productive: Bush invaded Iraq. Metonymyis occasionally the basis for permanent shifts of meaning; look up bead in acomprehensive dictionary with etymological information such as AHD. Metaphor is yet another relationship among words. It is based on per-ceived similarities between entities, and word meanings are often extendedto denote entities similar in some ways to the ones more typically denotedby the word.
Many metaphors are based on body parts; for example, AHD p. Mouth and foot also have multiple metaphoric meanings, which yourdictionary should list. Because metaphorical senses are extensions of the basic senses of words,they develop historically later than them.
Some extensions may be haphaz-ard; for instance, we do not think of the nose of a river or a bottle. But theremay be some general principles in language for metaphorical creation. Forinstance, English seems to have a principle by which color words may beextended to psychological states: e.
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See Lakoff and Johnson Compare and contrast a regular dictionary with a thesaurus, payingparticular attention to the ways in which both are organized and theways in which meanings are represented. What purposes do you thinkeach was designed for? Rhetoricians, literary critics, and others interested in figures ofspeech tropes have distinguished many types and subtypes. Those re-lated to metonymy are particularly interesting. You might investigatesynecdoche and antonomasia and discuss their implications for wordmeaning. Lakoff and Johnson is a thought-provoking discussion Delahunty and Garvey of figures of speech, especially of metaphor.
How do we know words have meaning? By posing this question, we do not intend to cast doubt on the propositionthat words have meanings. Rather, we want to spell out some good reasonsto believe it. In our chapter on Concepts of Language, we observed that ourlinguistic competence allows us to do many things. Recall that competence isunconscious linguistic knowledge, which includes knowledge of the meaningsof words; examples such as the ones below tell us only that such knowledgemust exist, not what it actually is.
Crucially for our current discussion, it enables us to detect meaningrelations among expressions, including, whether an expression has a coher-ent meaning or not 1a , whether expressions paraphrase each other, that is,whether they are synonymous 1b , whether words are related by hyponymy 1c , partonymy 1d , antonymy 1e , whether a word fan is ambiguous 1f , and whether a word is used metaphorically 1g , as well as all the othermeaning relations we identified above.
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. That fan is very annoying. Examples such as those in 1 could easily be multiplied, but these fewshould make clear a simple idea: linguistic competence includes an unconsciousknowledge of the literal meanings of words. While this conclusion might seemtrivial, it conceals several less-than-obvious points.
First, it suggests that Word Meaningspeakers carry around in their minds something like a dictionary of theirlanguage. For instance,no book dictionary will tell you that the words idea and sleep cannot literallybe combined as subject and predicate. Linguists often use the terms lexiconor mental lexicon to refer to this aspect of our linguistic competence and toemphasize its difference from written dictionaries.
In fact, the nature ofthe mental lexicon is still unclear; we will explore some of its characteristicsbelow. Second, you should not confuse knowing the meaning of a word withbeing able to give it a satisfactory definition. Such people are about as rare as good poets. Landau ExerciseWithout consulting a dictionary, state the meaning s of the words be-low: a. How did you solve them? Third, whatever the nature of the mental lexicon, it clearly must show thatwords are related to one another.
To put it negatively, words are not just listedin our competence, in alphabetical or any other simple order. Rather, theyare, as we have seen, interconnected in complex ways. These interconnec-tions determine which words can and cannot occur together in grammaticalconstructions—e.
Interconnections relate families of words re-lated by polysemy, synonymy, meronymy, antonymy, and other sense relations. Delahunty and Garvey Some models and explanations of word meaningSince published dictionaries do not offer a very useful model of our lexicalcompetence, linguists have struggled to present more plausible ones. The largest unabridged dictionaries of English con-tain well over half a million entries.
Clearly, however, no two individual speak-ers of a language have exactly the same vocabulary. If this is so, how can wehope to describe the vastness and variability of lexical competence? There are two basic models of lexical structure, the network modeland the componential model. In other words, our semantic competence does notconsist of knowing definitions at all, but rather of knowing how words relateto each other.
Word Meaningquently mentioned in the network literature.
For further elaboration, seeCruse , The network model characterizes not just the semantic relations amongseparate words, it can also describe the relationships between the senses ofindividual words. For instance, if you look up the noun order in a dictionary,you will find its meanings broken down by numerals and letters to includesuch different notions as: 1. Each oneof these senses enters into different network relations with the senses of otherwords. Using the N model, indicate how each of the following word pairs arerelated.
Write down any difficulties you have in coming to a decision. Using the N model, indicate the semantic relations among the wordsin each of the groups below. To simplify your work, write the group ofwords in a circle and draw lines between related words; label each linewith one of the network relations. Later, redraw your diagram to showrelations clearly.
Delahunty and Garvey meanings are complex and can be viewed as composed of basic, indivisibleunits of meaning. These units are usually called components, though some-times you will see them referred to as features or sememes. Componentsare often regarded as pure concepts, not to be equated with the words of anylanguage, which is why they are typically written in capital letters. Fromthis point of view, a word is essentially a shorthand way of grouping a set ofconcepts under a single label.
Some of the concepts that have been proposedby various linguists as components are listed in Table 2. The com-ponents are independent of the parts of speech of the words to which theyapply. You might object that such definitions are grossly oversimplified.
A validconcern. At the very least, how the components are related to each other isa very important aspect of word meaning. These issues raise technicalities which need not detain us here. For ways todeal with them you might read work on this topic, e. It is important to distinguish between the universality of the list of com-ponents and their language specific uses. The features mentioned in Table 2are quite likely to be universal, that is, having the potential to be used in thecreation of word meanings in any and all languages.
While there may be com-ponents that are specific to individual languages, there are linguists who claimto have identified a universal set of semantic primitives. Anna Wierzbickaprobably makes the strongest claim in that regard—see Wierzbicka , for Word Meaningexample; Goddard is an accessible introduction to that style of doingsemantics. While linguists may claim that the sets of primitives they propose are uni-versal, no one claims that they are bundled together in the same way in alllanguages.
Both languages indicatethe female member of certain pairs of words morphologically: lion, lioness;lion, lionne. For an amusing compilation of words with remarkablemeanings see de Boinod You might argue that cannibal suggests primitiveness, war-fare, initiation, or absorption of the characteristics of the person devoured. However, these are not essential components of the meaning of cannibal; acannibal is still a cannibal even if he is a highly educated rugby player.
Themarginal aspects of the meaning of cannibal can be regarded as its conno-tations. The connotations of words are often variable across speakers of alanguage and typically express emotional associations. Different words thatmay be used for the same things may convey different feelings about them;for example, woman and lady may refer to the same entities, but they conveyrather different attitudes toward them.
Examine the words below. Which of the components from Table 2might the words represent? For each word, identify one component not Delahunty and Garvey in Table 2. Identify words whose meanings are represented by the followingcombinations of components. If no such word exists in English, indicatethat fact. If you know a language besides English, identify words in thatlanguage that correspond to the set of components.