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This aspect performs particularly well when viewing movies or playing games, as vibrancy is retained for users with a contrast ratio of This translates to an extremely high level of luminescence that registers twice as high as most other projectors in the same price range. The TW also touts a native display resolution of p full HD , with an aspect ratio of Also on board is a 3D conversion mode, which converts ordinary 2D content into a 3D format. This process is a bit more of a novelty, as the conversion is not as strong as 3D-specific content.

Hot under the collar There is very little we can identify as glaring issues with the TW, however the amount of heat it produces as well as noise generated during powering up and shutting down is a little disconcerting. Taking everything into account, we understand that R47 is by no means a small amount of money to be shelling out for a home cinema projector.

But we cannot overstate the marked difference that the new UHE lamp and 3LCD colour display combination make, when comparing the TW to other top end units. Further added to this, is 3D functionality which is a fantastic feature. A relatively unknown brand locally, our first encounter with Microlab is with its specially designed bookshelf speaker, the H Beautifully encased in faux-leather, we test it out and see if its more than just style over substance. This is complemented by Bluetooth functionality to make it an ideal bookshelf speaker.

Easy Listening On top of the right speaker, is the control panel, with source selection, music playing buttons and volume dial. The most important button, allows users to toggle between playing music from an in-line device or Bluetooth connected one. We did however encounter one issue with Bluetooth, as attempting to sync new devices could only be done once the H20 speakers have been reset. We were however pleasantly surprised by the fact that there was no difference in sound quality between the in-line and Bluetooth modes.

The H20 speakers most defining feature is its faux-leather finish. This lack of true top-end sound clarity is understandable considering the H20 is fitted with two 3. But the price One aspect that bothered was its price, as Microlab has slapped a R2 price tag on this pair. As enticing as the leather bound speakers may look, it may ward off a couple of would-be buyers. In this mode, the Walkman performs well with crisp, sharp sound quality that has a strong enough balance of treble and bass, with hardly any noticeable distortion when turned to full volume.

This is ideal for listening to music on the fly, without having to worry about pairing it with another device or unruly cables. When in use, these speakers offer adequate listening quality, with enough power for its user to enjoy. But no Bluetooth! We were quite surprised and similarly disappointed to find out that these headphones cannot connect wirelessly via Bluetooth to other devices. This feels like a step backwards, considering Sony has packed so much technology and functionality into the WH headphones. As a result the Walkman feel a little limited from a technology standpoint.

Final say At R2 , the WH has plenty of functionality to make it stand out from the crowd, providing fantastic comfort thanks to its cushioned earpieces with solid build quality and attention to detail maintained throughout. Its overall design however is a little bland, appearing far less enticing than other similarly priced models currently available. In many regards, the WH delivers fantastic value for money, but the lack of true wireless functionality seems to tarnish an otherwise well polished product. For that reason alone, we expect it will struggle in a market brimming with svelte alternatives.

Dynamite comes in small packages, and it appears that Philips has taken it to heart when designing the Sound Shooter portable speaker. This is due to its barrel-shaped design, which offers a pleasant change from the circular tube or pebble shaped offerings like the Shox Mini or Audiomotion Mighty Dwarf. The other key design feature is the rubberised shell used to cover and protect the central core and speaker unit of the Sound Shooter. For R the Sound Shooter is an absolute steal for users who enjoy taking their music on the go. Standing a mere 82 mm high, 67 mm wide and weighing 38 g, the Sound Shooter is extremely compact, which makes handling quite easy, an essential requisite for any good portable speaker.

Philips has integrated three different speaker functions into the Sound Shooter, with the first two affording users either in-line device setup or Bluetooth connectivity.


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The in-line playing mode is facilitated via a micro USB port on the Sound Shooter and a dual-cable with a 3. The latter is also used to charge the portable speaker which gives it up to 8 hours of playtime. The Bluetooth function is similarly quick and easy to use, and allows June TechSmart. The third function turns the Sound Shooter into a loudspeaker to answer calls, thanks to its built-in microphone and illuminated button located atop the speaker. The sound quality in all three playing functions is supremely crisp in low to medium range volume levels. When turned to full volume however, the Sound Shooter does struggle, as a slight amount of tinnyness and static becomes noticeable in bass heavy music.

On the whole, the Philips Sound Shooter is immensely impressive and produces fantastic sound quality relative to its speaker setup and size. Given the fact that it will only set you back R, the Sound Shooter is an absolute steal for users who enjoy taking their music on the go. Smartwatch Waves goodbye to convention More than a year ago, issuing voice commands right from your wrist seemed a bit far-fetched, but now this is no longer the case. The WAVE boasts a variety of features, including the ability to make calls and dish up helpful notifications, also offering up sports data via a pedometer app, and onboard FM radio.

Much like a smartphone, a smartwatch similarly lives or dies by how easy its user interface is to use. Thankfully, the accurate five-point capacitive touch panel makes it easy to navigate through its interface. Users can type their emails, chat or send SMSs without the annoyance of having to continuously hit the backspace to retype and correct their mistakes.

However, many of these are intended as complementary. This obviates the need to carry an extra device to sync with the smartwatch while jogging, cycling or at the gym. Thankfully, these are catered to with a good dollop of 4 GB of onboard storage. For more information visit: www. Evetech set out to create a console killer at the same pricing as the PS4 to show why it believes PC gaming still reigns supreme.

Evetech claimed that the resolution of x provides a clear boost in image clarity as compared with the PS4. Cost considerations Then, bringing out the big guns price , Evetech pointed out that PC games are generally a lot cheaper than their console counterparts, adding that cross-platform titles are often hundreds of Rands cheaper than console games and often the better of the few versions available. Furthermore, PC game modders offer a consistent supply of user-generated content, usually for free, to enhance the overall experience. For more information contact them on or visit www. June TechSmart.

Gaming notebooks may well be the luxury sedans of the notebook world, but with its Apache Pro, MSI aims to ensure its latest could be just as easily likened to a Ferrari without the hefty pricetag. Either way, the graphics solution is no slouch on the As for the screen, gamers can anticipate playing their latest titles in full HD x , or alternatively,. No ticket required for this light show To its credit, and obviating the need to connect an external keyboard, the GE70 Apache Pro further boasts a SteelSeries gaming keyboard.

Furthermore, the SteelSeries Engine will automatically recognise the game running and load the saved, appropriate keyboard profile. Another feature worth mentioning is the inclusion of XSplit Gamecaster, which enables players to record their gaming moments and broadcast their live gameplay sessions on the likes of Twitch, YouTube and UStream.

Finally, the GE70 Apache Pro also boasts hefty available storage features. Entry-level is called such for a reason, and in most cases it boils down to restrictions on handling- and shooting abilities. While the D is very capable when it comes to imaging, shooting in low-light can become a hassle since the ISO , expanded to 12 should not really be pushed past Also, the 3" LCD screen at the back carries a low k dot resolution, making it difficult to see in playback if images are in focus. But, the D is the first camera from Canon to come with a free smartphone companion app iOS, Android only , which is an excellent addition.

The app shows what all of the buttons and dials do, while also taking you through tutorials on how to get a shallow depth of field, amongst others. The D does exactly what you expect a R entry-level camera to do, providing one with solid image quality and a handy companion app. Having said that, it hardly pushes the limits, and if you have a R1 or so extra, rather go for the smaller and slightly better specced D with touchscreen, which we thought was brilliant. One of our travel secrets is to pack an empty daypack into our luggage, ready to greet a new city and its shops, for the first time.

Rising to the occasion is the 25 litre Felix daypack from Hi-tec. Ideally, these should be light and compact enough to practically disappear on your back, but also roomy enough to hold plenty of gear. The Felix is a very capable, comfortable and full featured daypack. The good news is that the Felix, which, in yellow-green and grey, looks sporty, checks all the above boxes. Much like the larger 35 litre technical pack from Hi-tec, the Asila, the Felix similarly boasts wide, comfortable shoulder straps, its own handle on the top and both chest and waist straps for ensuring it stays put.

Features a-plenty Also onboard are two very nice stretchable pockets for water bottles again, thankfully not mesh, which tend to tear , while hidden away in a zippable compartment is a bright green waterproof cover. Not only will this keep your bag dry in a deluge, it could, we suspect, conceivably also attract the attention of passing helicopters if you ever find yourself stranded on the mountain. Expanding its space is a secondary compartment, which also hosts a key fob. The daypack could further do duty on short hikes as well — on both of its sides are two adjustable loops for securing hiking poles or a monopod.

In a nutshell, the Felix is a very capable, comfortable and full featured daypack that will likely well serve those who are heading to the hills for a weekend or further afield alike. RRP: R As with most fitness bands and activity trackers, Sony has opted for a relatively refined design aesthetic. The only embellishments are a silver circular tag and diagonal ridges on the wristband itself.

The latter offers a tactile feel to the SmartBand, but ultimately attracts a fair amount of dirt and dust. The key to the SmartBand lies in its intuitive Lifelog application available across all Android 4. Out of this batch, the Gear Fit from Samsung is the most intriguing smartband, thanks to its 1. Compared to other bands, the Gear Fit is feature filled, with notifications for calls, emails and events, along with pedometer and calorie measuring functionality.

There is however one major downfall to all this, as the Gear Fit is dissapointingly only compatible with a selection of Galaxy S devices. This makes having to tap multiple times to view a single email a little frustrating after a while. As with the Galaxy S5, the Gear Fit also features a heart rate sensor and is water resistant, making it more versatile than the rest.

As far as smart bands go, the Gear Fit is solid, but still has some kinks to iron out for follow-up iterations, specifically its price. BANDS As the tech world continues its efforts in the wearable space, the local market is starting to see a range of new smartbands and activity trackers touching down in SA. We review some of the early frontrunners. The Fitbit Flex is a band that is better categorised as an activity tracker than a fully fledged fitness wearable. The UP24 from American manufacturer Jawbone, offers users an activity tracker with a completely unique look and feel, courtesy of its wrap-around design.

Its one major limiting factor however, is its lack of alternative data capturing modes, as it is only able to register steps taken and calories burned. For those users looking for a device to assist them in tracking the efficacy of their workouts, the Flex is not ideal. From an accuracy standpoint, the UP24 is very precise, as a result of its tri-axis accelerometer and MotionX technology setup.

This translates to a realistic capturing of information that allows wearers to gauge their progress more effectively. The one downside to the UP24 is its lack of water resistance when compared to other activity trackers. This should not present any trouble during sweat-inducing workout sessions, but takes swimming out of the equation. Another mark against the UP24 is its R1 price tag, which makes it more expensive than other offerings. In recently released Battle Pack desig its main rest of the Batt le Pack rang e, with the sam e blac k and whit e as the the boot, repreof front the g alon ing runn nt difference the blue coloured acce roots.

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This has two, along with additional studs on This month we look at how events billions of years ago shaped where we are today. A study just out lets us watch how the universe likely unfolded. Scientists simulated a large chunk of space, divided it into billions of smaller units and then let a computer network run calculations for 16 million hours combined. The resulting simulation shows how, just after the Big Bang, dark matter forms a cosmic web, followed by the formation of galaxies around stars and massive black holes. When the stars eventually explode, elements from their cores are blasted into the gassy intergalactic space.

Judging from comparison with real-world space images, the simulation is remarkably accurate. Watch how it all unfolds: bit. In the aftermath of the Big Bang, dust and gas swirled around young stars, gradually thinning out into a flat, disc-like shape. As the disc spun around the star, the dust particles gradually started to clump together, growing progressively bigger to form the beginnings of a planet.

Many of these early planets form at the same time and often collide with each other, causing the objects either to break up or to merge. Over millions of years and after many such collisions, the objects have become big enough to have cleared most of the rubble in their paths and a sparsely populated disc matures into a planetary system.

With everything set for biological reactions to occur on Earth, the planet became rife with early photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Although they had appeared much earlier already, the iron-rich oceans of early Earth absorbed all the oxygen they produced. But because of their prolific population growth, they eventually released more oxygen than could be absorbed. The excess accumulated in the atmosphere, causing the cyanobacteria to die and setting the stage for aerobic life forms to evolve.

In less than half an hour after the Big Bang, space had been seeded mostly with hydrogen and helium, and a little bit of lithium and beryllium. Anything heavier — from nitrogen to iron — forms in stars through an atomic fusion chain reaction. This blows the whole star apart and spews the elements into interstellar space.

And in a brief few moments after this explosion, temperature and pressure conditions are just right for heavier elements to form in the gas and dust. A recent study suggests that the hot, iron-rich oceans of early Earth may have been just the push that set the wheels of life rolling. Scientists added the known starting points for modern metabolic pathways to solutions similar to those early oceans. After the solutions had simmered for a few hours, the same metabolites were found as formed through two metabolic pathways found in all modern cells.

The difference, though, is that enzymes catalyse these metabolic reactions in modern cells. Yet they were not available 4 billion years ago. The findings therefore suggest that the iron-rich oceans supplied suitable inorganic catalysts to allow carbon metabolism. Sources Snippet 1: bit. It seems as if your smartphone carries more than just a cellular signal.

As part of a Practical and Biomedical Bacteriology course, University of Surrey students imprint their phones onto bacteriological growth media, to see what it might carry. The results are quite surprising, as seen on the photo of what can only be the outlines of an iPhone formed by bacteria. However, one concern with using Cl2-based plasma chemistry is the effect of residual chlorine or chlorinated etch residues remaining on the sidewalls of etched features, leading to a degradation of the magnetic properties.

To avoid this problem, we employed two different processing methods. The first one is applying several different cleaning procedures, including de-ionized water rinsing or in-situ exposure to H2, O2 or SF6 plasmas. There is a small chemical contribution to the etch mechanism i. The discharge should be NH3. Mechanistic studies of high-density lipoproteins.

There is increasing evidence that high-density lipoprotein HDL and its subfractions are protective against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Physical exercise, weight reduction, smoking cessation, diabetes mellitus control, and specific drugs, including niacin, fibrates, and estrogens, are effective methods to increase HDL levels. Niacin is the oldest and most powerful clinical agent for raising HDL levels. Recent research from our laboratory suggests a novel mechanism by which niacin inhibits hepatic removal of HDL-apoprotein A-I without interfering with the removal of cholesterol carried by HDL, thus augmenting reverse cholesterol transport.

Other mechanistic studies indicate that fibrates and estrogens stimulate the synthesis and production of HDL-apoprotein A-I. Naughton, Jeff; Varela, Juan M. The device has been used in real time to noninvasively couple to leech neurons, allowing for extracellular recording of synaptic activity in the form of spontaneous synapse firing in pre- and post-synaptic somata. In addition, we show by subtly altering the architecture the ability for optical integration with the device - that is, it can function as both a local light delivery conduit and a recording electrode. We utilized this novel device to optically elicit and electrically record membrane currents in HEK cells transfected with plasmids encoding ChR2-YFP i.

Finally, we show that the local Faraday shield is effective in isolating the sensing area, so as to record only from cells in immediate proximity. Assembly of high-density lipoprotein. Mammalian somatic cells do not catabolize cholesterol and need to export it for its homeostasis at the levels of cells and whole bodies.

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This reaction may reduce intracellularly accumulated cholesterol in excess and would contribute to prevention or regression of the initial stage of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein HDL is thought to play a main role in this reaction, and 2 independent mechanisms are proposed for this reaction. First, cholesterol is exchanged in a nonspecific physicochemical manner between cell surface and extracellular lipoproteins, and cholesterol esterification on HDL provides a driving force for net removal of cell cholesterol.

Second, apolipoproteins directly interact with cells and generate HDL by removing cellular phospholipid and cholesterol. Lipid-free or lipid-poor helical apolipoproteins primarily recruit cellular phospholipid to assemble HDL particles, and cholesterol enrichment in these particles is regulated independently. ABCA1 is a rate-limiting factor of the HDL assembly and is regulated by transcriptional factors and posttranscriptional factors.

Posttranscriptional regulation of ABCA1 includes modulation of its calpain-mediated degradation. High density nonmagnetic cobalt in thin films. Recently high density HD nonmagnetic cobalt has been discovered in a nanoscale cobalt thin film, grown on Si single crystal. This form of cobalt is not only nonmagnetic but also superconducting. These promising results have encouraged further investigations of the growth of the nonmagnetic NM phase of cobalt. In the original investigation, the cobalt film had a natural cobalt oxide at the top.

We have investigated whether the growth of HD NM cobalt layers in the thin film depends on i a capping layer on the cobalt film, ii the thickness of the cobalt film and iii the nature of the substrate on which the cobalt film is grown. The results of such investigations indicate that for cobalt films capped with a thin gold layer, and for various film thicknesses, HD NM cobalt layers are formed. However, instead of a Si substrate, when the cobalt films are grown on oxide substrates, such as silicon oxide or cobalt oxide, HD NM cobalt layers are not formed. The difference is attributed to the nature—crystalline or amorphous—of the substrate.

Maturation of high-density lipoproteins. Human high-density lipoproteins HDLs are involved in the transport of cholesterol. The mechanism by which HDL assembles and functions is not well understood owing to a lack of structural information on circulating spherical HDL. Here, we report a series of molecular dynamics simulations that describe the maturation of discoidal HDL into spherical HDL upon incorporation of cholesterol ester as well as the resulting atomic level structure of a mature circulating spherical HDL particle.

Sixty cholesterol ester molecules were added in a stepwise fashion to a discoidal HDL particle containing two apolipoproteins wrapped around a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. The resulting matured particle, captured in a coarse-grained description, was then described in a consistent all-atom representation and analysed in chemical detail. The simulations show that maturation results from the formation of a highly dynamic hydrophobic core comprised of cholesterol ester surrounded by phospholipid and protein; the two apolipoprotein strands remain in a belt-like conformation as seen in the discoidal HDL particle, but with flexible N- and C-terminal helices and a central region stabilized by salt bridges.

In the otherwise flexible lipoproteins, a less mobile central region provides an ideal location to bind lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, the key enzyme that converts cholesterol to cholesterol ester during HDL maturation. Nanobiotechnology applications of reconstituted high density lipoprotein.

Prior to maturation, nascent HDL exist as disk-shaped phospholipid bilayers whose perimeter is stabilized by amphipathic apolipoproteins. Methods have been developed to generate reconstituted rHDL in vitro and these particles have been used in a variety of novel ways. In this review, various applications of ND technology are described, such as their use as miniature membranes for solubilization and characterization of integral membrane proteins in a native like conformation.

In vitro and in vivo studies show that drug loaded ND are stable and possess potent biological activity. A third application of ND is their use as a platform for incorporation of amphiphilic chelators of contrast agents, such as gadolinium, used in magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, it is demonstrated that the basic building block of plasma HDL can be repurposed for alternate functions.

The tail gut is a blind extension of the hindgut into the tail fold just distal to the cloacal membrane. Remnants of this structure may form tail gut cyst. We report a year-old girl with tail gut cyst that presented as acute abdomen. The patient recovered after cyst excision. Keratinizing dentigerous cyst is a rare entity. This article reports a case of keratinizing dentigerous cyst associated with an impacted mandibular canine. Clinical and radiological features, cone-beam computed tomography findings and histological features of the case are reported along with a discussion on keratinizing odontogenic cysts and the need for follow-up.

Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst mimicking periapical cyst. Orthokeratinised odontogenic cyst OOC denotes the odontogenic cyst that microscopically has an orthokeratinised epithelial lining. OOC is characterised by a less-aggressive behaviour and a low rate of recurrence. This report describes a case of OOC involving posterior part of the mandible that mimicked periapical cyst in a year-old boy. The initial clinical diagnosis was given as periapical cyst based on the clinical and radiographical features.

Enucleation of the cyst was performed and the specimen was sent for histopathological examination. A definite diagnosis of OOC was made by histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen. This case emphases on including OOC in the differential diagnosis of radiolucencies occurring in the periapical region of non-vital tooth. A high density Laser Vertical Link with resistance values below 10 ohms was developed, studied and tested using design of experiment methodologies.

The vertical link offers excellent advantages in the area of quick prototyping of electronic circuits, but even more important, due to having similar characteristics to a foundry produced via, it gives quick transfer from the prototype system verification stage to the mass production stage. Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection. Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible.

Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized.

The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: Cystic renal neoplasms and renal epithelial stromal tumors are diagnostically challenging and represent some novel tumor entities. In this article, clinical and pathologic features of established and novel entities are discussed. These entities are own tumor entities of the WHO classification of renal tumors. Tubulocystic carcinoma and acquired cystic disease-associated renal cell carcinoma are neoplasms with an intrinsically cystic growth pattern.

Both tumor types should be included in a future WHO classification as novel entities owing to their characteristic features. Cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma frequently coexist within the kidneys of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease. Sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas often contain cysts , usually as a minor component. Some clear cell renal cell carcinomas have prominent cysts , and multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma is composed almost exclusively of cysts. Recent molecular findings suggest that clear cell renal cancer may develop through cyst -dependent and cyst -independent molecular pathways.

The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts , a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. The relation between high-density and very- high-density amorphous ice. On compressing LDA at K up to 1. Density values of amorphous ice obtained in situ between 0.

Mycotic cysts are subcutaneous cystic granulomas caused by either dematiaceous pigmented fungi pheomycotic cysts or eumycotic nonpigmented fungi present in soil, wood, and decaying plant material. These fungi gain access to the tissues via a wooden splinter or thorn. No deep tissue involvement or extension to bone is known to occur. We reviewed our surgical pathology files for the last 32 years. All cases with the diagnosis of cysts with fungi, thorns, or splinters and associated granulomatous and acute inflammation were reviewed.

Gomori's silver and periodic acid-Schiff stains were performed in all cases. Twenty-one cases of mycotic cyst were found, including eight pheomycotic cysts one with a recurrent lesion seen 11 months after the initial excision of the cyst. Thirteen cysts had nonpigmented fungal hyphae. There were 14 males and seven females, with an age range of years. The dorsum of the foot was the most frequently affected site 12 cases. Four cases involved the fingers, two involved the knee area, two involved the big toe, and one each involved the leg, ankle, and forearm.

The cysts measured 0. Histologically, there was granulomatous inflammation with a variable degree of neutrophilic infiltrate giving central abscess formation.

TechSmart , June by Smart Publishing - Issuu

Twelve cases showed a wooden splinter. All cases were positive for fungal organisms, mostly septate hyphae and spores that were highlighted by special stains. Fungal pigment, ranging from yellow-brown to light brown to black, was observed in eight cases. No extension to deep tissues was noted. The clinical impression varied widely including ganglion, sebaceous cyst , giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, and lipoma. One patient was immunosuppressed following renal transplantation. All patients were treated by simple excision. No antifungal chemotherapy was needed or administered in any of the patients.

One patient had a recurrence of his lesion within 1 year as a result of inadequate initial. Rare Nonneoplastic Cysts of Pancreas. Pancreatic cysts represent a small proportion of pancreatic diseases, but their incidence has been recently increasing. Most pancreatic cysts are identified incidentally, causing a dilemma for both clinicians and patients.

In contrast to ductal adenocarcinoma, neoplastic pancreatic cysts may be cured by resection. In general, pancreatic cysts are classified as neoplastic or non-neoplastic cysts. The predominant types of neoplastic cysts include intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasms.

With the exception of serous type, neoplastic cysts , have malignant potential, and in most cases requires resection. Non-neoplastic cysts include pseudocyst, retention cyst , benign epithelial cysts , lymphoepithelial cysts , squamous lined cysts dermoid cyst and epidermal cyst in intrapancreatic accessory spleen , mucinous nonneoplastic cysts , and lymphangiomas. The incidence of nonneoplastic, noninflammatory cysts is about 6. Despite the use of high-resolution imaging technologies and cytologic tissue acquisition with endosonography, distinguishing nonneoplastic from neoplastic cysts remains difficult with most differentiations made postoperatively.

Nonetheless, the definitive distinction between non-neoplastic and neoplastic cysts is crucial as unnecessary surgery could be avoided with proper diagnosis. Therefore, consideration of these rare disease entities should be entertained before deciding on surgery. Intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts.

Hydatid disease caused by echinococcus granulosus is still a serious problem in both underdeveloped and developing countries. Clinical signs of the disease are not specific. Most patients have a few symptoms when a hydatid cyst is discovered. Symptoms depend on its location, size and complications. Parasite can settle in every organ and tissue in the human body. We report two cases with intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst with multiple cysts. Pathophysiology of the mode of dissemination, and surgery are discussed.

Renal angiogram; Angiography - kidney; Renal angiography; Renal artery stenosis - arteriography The birth defect may appear as open spaces called cleft sinuses, which may develop on one or both sides of the neck. A branchial cleft cyst may form from fluid drained from a sinus. The cyst or sinus can become infected. Dentigerous cyst in a dog. An infrequently occurring tumor-like lesion arising from the cellular components of the developing dental follicle is the dentigerous cyst.

These odontogenic cysts have classic clinical and radiographic findings. The cysts are locally invasive and aggressive and require prompt surgical management. This case describes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of a dentigerous cyst in the mandible of a dog. Computerised Tomography Follow-Up Results. The clinical significance of maxillary sinus mucosal cysts in liver and kidney transplant recipients remains unclear. To investigate the course of maxillary mucosal cysts in liver and kidney transplantation patients.

Retrospective clinical study Methods: Paranasal sinus computed tomography scans of renal and 43 hepatic transplant recipients were reviewed. The incidence, size and growth characteristics of maxillary mucosal cysts in the renal and hepatic transplant population were noted. Overall incidence of maxillary sinus mucosal cyst in transplantation patients was found to be Mean growth rate of the cysts was calculated to be 6.

Most of the cysts were located on the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus. Incidence of the maxillary mucosal cysts in renal and hepatic transplant recipients does not differ from general population, but these cysts have a greater tendency to grow. Specific measures are not needed for isolated, asymptomatic maxillary mucosal cysts in transplant populations. High density polyethylene pipe fill height table in Arizona. This report documents a review of nationwide practices with regard to recommendations for fill heights: Another item of interest to the investigation was typical: Branchial cleft cyst , sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice.

They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst.

The aim of presenting this case is its rarity. Odontogenic Cysts - An Overview. This article aims to discuss the clinical features, radiological assessment, histopathology and management of a variety of odontogenic cysts. It also highlights the reclassification of odontogenic keratocysts to keratocystic odontogenic tumours. Pancreas and cyst segmentation. Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis.

Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst. Simple bone cysts SBC are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region.

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The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required.

SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Rising to the occasion is the 25 litre Felix daypack from Hi-tec. Ideally, these should be light and compact enough to practically disappear on your back, but also roomy enough to hold plenty of gear. The Felix is a very capable, comfortable and full featured daypack. The good news is that the Felix, which, in yellow-green and grey, looks sporty, checks all the above boxes.

Rooms and availability

Much like the larger 35 litre technical pack from Hi-tec, the Asila, the Felix similarly boasts wide, comfortable shoulder straps, its own handle on the top and both chest and waist straps for ensuring it stays put. Features a-plenty Also onboard are two very nice stretchable pockets for water bottles again, thankfully not mesh, which tend to tear , while hidden away in a zippable compartment is a bright green waterproof cover. Not only will this keep your bag dry in a deluge, it could, we suspect, conceivably also attract the attention of passing helicopters if you ever find yourself stranded on the mountain.

Expanding its space is a secondary compartment, which also hosts a key fob. The daypack could further do duty on short hikes as well — on both of its sides are two adjustable loops for securing hiking poles or a monopod. In a nutshell, the Felix is a very capable, comfortable and full featured daypack that will likely well serve those who are heading to the hills for a weekend or further afield alike.

RRP: R As with most fitness bands and activity trackers, Sony has opted for a relatively refined design aesthetic. The only embellishments are a silver circular tag and diagonal ridges on the wristband itself. The latter offers a tactile feel to the SmartBand, but ultimately attracts a fair amount of dirt and dust. The key to the SmartBand lies in its intuitive Lifelog application available across all Android 4. Out of this batch, the Gear Fit from Samsung is the most intriguing smartband, thanks to its 1. Compared to other bands, the Gear Fit is feature filled, with notifications for calls, emails and events, along with pedometer and calorie measuring functionality.

There is however one major downfall to all this, as the Gear Fit is dissapointingly only compatible with a selection of Galaxy S devices. This makes having to tap multiple times to view a single email a little frustrating after a while. As with the Galaxy S5, the Gear Fit also features a heart rate sensor and is water resistant, making it more versatile than the rest. As far as smart bands go, the Gear Fit is solid, but still has some kinks to iron out for follow-up iterations, specifically its price.

BANDS As the tech world continues its efforts in the wearable space, the local market is starting to see a range of new smartbands and activity trackers touching down in SA. We review some of the early frontrunners. The Fitbit Flex is a band that is better categorised as an activity tracker than a fully fledged fitness wearable.

The UP24 from American manufacturer Jawbone, offers users an activity tracker with a completely unique look and feel, courtesy of its wrap-around design. Its one major limiting factor however, is its lack of alternative data capturing modes, as it is only able to register steps taken and calories burned. For those users looking for a device to assist them in tracking the efficacy of their workouts, the Flex is not ideal.

From an accuracy standpoint, the UP24 is very precise, as a result of its tri-axis accelerometer and MotionX technology setup. This translates to a realistic capturing of information that allows wearers to gauge their progress more effectively. The one downside to the UP24 is its lack of water resistance when compared to other activity trackers. This should not present any trouble during sweat-inducing workout sessions, but takes swimming out of the equation. Another mark against the UP24 is its R1 price tag, which makes it more expensive than other offerings.

In recently released Battle Pack desig its main rest of the Batt le Pack rang e, with the sam e blac k and whit e as the the boot, repreof front the g alon ing runn nt difference the blue coloured acce roots. Puma evoPower Tricks taken a come black and white look, Puma has If Adidas has opted for a monoton uring a pink favo s, evoPower Tricks World Cup boot pletely different approach for its that each fact the is ue, uniq so ce choi ur this colo ower and blue colourway.

What makes evoP The. R2 : RRP el. On either side of the boot seamless fit and increased level of jinking runs on the ing offer greater stability when mak specially designed Brio cables, to three layers to from n dow ed trimm been Superfly has field. This has two, along with additional studs on This month we look at how events billions of years ago shaped where we are today. A study just out lets us watch how the universe likely unfolded. Scientists simulated a large chunk of space, divided it into billions of smaller units and then let a computer network run calculations for 16 million hours combined.

The resulting simulation shows how, just after the Big Bang, dark matter forms a cosmic web, followed by the formation of galaxies around stars and massive black holes. When the stars eventually explode, elements from their cores are blasted into the gassy intergalactic space. Judging from comparison with real-world space images, the simulation is remarkably accurate. Watch how it all unfolds: bit.

In the aftermath of the Big Bang, dust and gas swirled around young stars, gradually thinning out into a flat, disc-like shape. As the disc spun around the star, the dust particles gradually started to clump together, growing progressively bigger to form the beginnings of a planet. Many of these early planets form at the same time and often collide with each other, causing the objects either to break up or to merge.

Over millions of years and after many such collisions, the objects have become big enough to have cleared most of the rubble in their paths and a sparsely populated disc matures into a planetary system. With everything set for biological reactions to occur on Earth, the planet became rife with early photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Although they had appeared much earlier already, the iron-rich oceans of early Earth absorbed all the oxygen they produced. But because of their prolific population growth, they eventually released more oxygen than could be absorbed.

The excess accumulated in the atmosphere, causing the cyanobacteria to die and setting the stage for aerobic life forms to evolve. In less than half an hour after the Big Bang, space had been seeded mostly with hydrogen and helium, and a little bit of lithium and beryllium. Anything heavier — from nitrogen to iron — forms in stars through an atomic fusion chain reaction. This blows the whole star apart and spews the elements into interstellar space. And in a brief few moments after this explosion, temperature and pressure conditions are just right for heavier elements to form in the gas and dust.

A recent study suggests that the hot, iron-rich oceans of early Earth may have been just the push that set the wheels of life rolling. Scientists added the known starting points for modern metabolic pathways to solutions similar to those early oceans. After the solutions had simmered for a few hours, the same metabolites were found as formed through two metabolic pathways found in all modern cells.

The difference, though, is that enzymes catalyse these metabolic reactions in modern cells. Yet they were not available 4 billion years ago. The findings therefore suggest that the iron-rich oceans supplied suitable inorganic catalysts to allow carbon metabolism. Sources Snippet 1: bit. It seems as if your smartphone carries more than just a cellular signal. As part of a Practical and Biomedical Bacteriology course, University of Surrey students imprint their phones onto bacteriological growth media, to see what it might carry.


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  • The results are quite surprising, as seen on the photo of what can only be the outlines of an iPhone formed by bacteria. Unfortunately, no anti-virus app will help in combating this form of infection. Straight eights Why does an octopus not tangle itself up? Serious now? The skin of an octopus reflexively inhibits the arm suckers from attaching to their own body. How do we know this?

    Researchers looked at how amputated octopus arms behave. The suckers attached strongly to objects for about an hour after being separated from the brain, which shows that attachment is a reflex action. But anything covered in octopus skin was avoided or touched very gingerly, without any attachment. Scientists recently developed a water-based gel that is a liquid at room temperature, sets at body temperature, and later decays spontaneously.

    Why is this useful? The gel can be used as a temporary scaffold for bone regrowth. How so? When the gel is injected into a space where new bone has to form, it sets and becomes a framework to which new bone cells can attach. Gradually, as the bone grows, the jelly starts to decay and then leaves the body. Why all the fuss? OK, so how? Scientists lobbed things like empty bottles, half-filled bottles, hammers and tennis rackets at a three-jointed arm with a sophisticated hand.

    But instead of programming it with set movements, they guided the robot arm towards the objects as they came flying. So, when faced with something new, the robot could guess the path based on what it already knows. This is similar to how humans learn.

    Yup, they can be really handy to help clean up space junk, of which the trajectories are unknown. Source: bit. Concept Cars are not just awesome eye-candy, they also offer hints at the design aesthetic a manufacturer will be using in years to come. These include a wraparound cluster with three intermeshing information displays for the driver to interact with. Next is the Heads Up Display HUD , which will now integrate information like road signs, historical landmarks and buildings, in addition to real-time information for traffic light phasing.

    Lastly is the front and backend light setup, which will feature Laserlight and OLED technology respectively. A sand-ready vehicle is something that Volkswagen has played around with in the past, such as the Volkswagen Buggy Up. Its also wider and taller than the R Line Beetle with an additional two inches of ground clearance for negotiating difficult terrain.

    At this stage, the Beetle Dune remains a concept, but may make its way to showroom floors as a limited edition release. Built from the design of the A3 Sedan, the Clubsport Quattro forms the basis for a range of similarly high specced vehicles the manufacturer plans to showcase later in the year.

    The design of this concept combines muscular side panels and sweeping lines into one awesome hybrid vehicle. Under the bonnet, Mercedes-Benz has incorporated a V6 engine that produces kW of power and Nm of torque. The Alfieri itself is partly inspired by the iconic Maserati A6 GCS, and adds some modern design flourishes to produce an exceptionally beautiful looking vehicle. It also features a 4. Other modern touches include TFT displays for the in-car instrument panel, bi-xenon and LED headlamps, 3 dimensional taillights and 21" alloy wheels with Maserati blue coloured accents.

    The concept itself is said to be inspired by high-tech, modern sporting equipment, according to Volvo. Its design team has incorporated traditional SUV elements such as the side mouldings and ski plates, with more robust aspects like the accentuated wheel arches which house 21" wheels, as well as an angular backend. The rear light setup is also a unique reinterpretation as Volvo looks to change its once plain, box-like aesthetic into something uniquely engaging. One of the worst cases of mistaken identity that comes with the geek lifestyle, is the one that exists between work and, well Being able to seamlessly transition between the two, without selling your soul or coming up short, is probably the most sought after superpower of this conflicting and complicated age.

    They are the creators of modern dreams or nightmares , pushing the boundaries of cinema and taking our thoughts in new directions. Movie fundi Spling picks the Top 5 modern directors. Christopher Nolan Christopher Nolan has become a household name thanks to a string of consistently dark, beautifully crafted, thought-provoking and meticulous films.

    In his quest for perfection, Nolan has delivered films that are both commercial and critical successes, appealing to the masses and appeasing film critics simultaneously. From the jagged timeline of Memento to the mind heist in Inception, Nolan has carved out a niche for himself as a filmmaker extraordinaire. The director manages to tap into the human spirit with subtle cinema that evokes a powerful range of emotion.

    Darren Aronofsky is an ambitious and fearless film-maker, whose work is challenging, terrifying and thought-provoking. From the bittersweet soul-searching in About Schmidt to celebrating love in Sideways, Payne never fails to draw on universal themes and characters that resonate with his audience. With regular award ceremony nods and an excellent strike rate, his comedy dramas are always entertaining, heartfelt and on point.

    While The Fountain and Noah received mixed reviews, their layered themes and flashes of brilliance still warrant our full attention. He may not be a crowd-pleaser, but dares you to go into the deepest, darkest reaches of the mind. Paul Thomas Anderson is a true auteur. The writer-director may only deliver a film every few years, but this philosophy seems to have worked for the late Stanley Kubrick. With a penchant for crime thrillers, Fincher has become a modern master of suspense, turning his films into tense, vivid and imaginative guessing games.

    From reimagining Adam Sandler in Punch-Drunk Love to transforming Dracula into an oil tycoon in There Will Be Blood, his distinctive, versatile and holistic film-making is well-respected and attracts the greatest acting talent. This is a director who truly immerses himself in every aspect of the film-making process. The director is the epitome of cool, emerging from a music video background and regularly collaborating with cutting edge talent like Brad Pitt and Trent Reznor.

    Just like Nolan, his films also carry both art house and commercial appeal. Maleficent is bound to be spectacular thanks to Robert Stromberg. This is an edgy night ride that works thanks to a compelling performance from Tom Hardy and nail-biting tension from writer-director Steven Knight. We saw some glimmers of greatness from Knight with Jason Statham in Redemption.

    By zooming in and leveraging an actor like Tom Hardy, Locke ironically unlocks mystery and suspense. The story follows a murder in , in which Beat Generation poets Ginsberg, Kerouac and Burroughs were united. The story follows a military officer, inexperienced in combat, yet stuck in a time loop repeating the same mission. Doug Liman directs a thought-provoking sci-fi actioner with a strong dose of dark comedy. Why watch? Blade Runner 2 looking to move Ford While a financial flop at the time of its release, Blade Runner has developed a loyal cult following and more traction with time.

    While it may contravene aspects of the original, Alcon Entertainment wants Harrison Ford and Ridley Scott back for the sequel. The year-old Ford reprised his role as Indiana Jones, is set to return as Han Solo, and will probably be persuaded to return as Rick Deckard, after a series of box office misfires. This is not to say that prevalent misogynist views have been eradicated. Instead the past few years have seen many festering issues bought to the fore. Comic book guru Moray Rhoda investigates. Laura Mulvey, a British feminist film theorist, introduced the concept of the male gaze as a symptom of gender power bias in her essay Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, but it applies equally to fine art, comics and gaming.

    Male gaze is art that forces the viewer to regard the action and characters through the perspective of a heterosexual man where women are presented in a sexualised context. The gaming industry especially excels at this with games like Tera Online where there is a stark contrast between male and female character creation and costuming.

    One official explanation is that she intended to put a symbol in the space but could not settle on one, so instead cut a hole in her costume as a placeholder.

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