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Influence of alcohol on condom use pattern during non-spousal sexual encounter in male migrant workers in north India. Alcohol consumption before sexual intercourse has been postulated to influence condom use practices. This study aimed to assess this association with regard to non-spousal sexual encounters among male migrant workers in northern India.

A cross-sectional facility-based survey was conducted in A consecutive sampling was performed. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out. A total of participants reported having experienced non-spousal sexual encounters in the last 1 year. The proportion of men who reported not having used a condom at their last non-spousal sexual encounter was About This association persisted even after adjusting for relevant confounders. Alcohol consumption had a negative influence on condom use during non-spousal sexual encounter among male migrant workers.

An integrated approach to promote condom use and reduce alcohol consumption among migrant men needs to be undertaken through targeted intervention strategies. Perception of drinking water safety and factors influencing acceptance and sustainability of a water quality intervention in rural southern India. Acceptance and long-term sustainability of water quality interventions are pivotal to realizing continued health benefits.

However, there is limited research attempting to understand the factors that influence compliance to or adoption of such interventions. Eight focus group discussions with parents of young children--including compliant and not compliant households participating in an intervention study, and three key-informant interviews with village headmen were conducted between April and May to understand perceptions on the effects of unsafe water on health, household drinking water treatment practices, and the factors influencing acceptance and sustainability of an ongoing water quality intervention in a rural population of southern India.

The ability to recognize health benefits from the intervention, ease of access to water distribution centers and the willingness to pay for intervention maintenance were factors facilitating acceptance and sustainability of the water quality intervention. On the other hand, faulty perceptions on water treatment, lack of knowledge about health hazards associated with drinking unsafe water, false sense of protection from locally available water, resistance to change in taste or odor of water and a lack of support from male members of the household were important factors impeding acceptance and long term use of the intervention.

This study highlights the need to effectively involve communities at important stages of implementation for long term success of water quality interventions. Timely research on the factors influencing uptake of water quality interventions prior to implementation will ensure greater acceptance and sustainability of such interventions in low income settings. Influence of socioeconomic aspects on lymphatic filariasis: A case-control study in Andhra Pradesh, India.

Lymphatic filariasis LF is a major public health problem in India. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of socioeconomic conditions on LF in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. A survey was carried out from to during which, an epidemiological and socioeconomic data were collected and analysed. The microfilaria mf positive samples were taken as cases and matched with control group by sex and age for case-control study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the potential risk factors for filariasis.

In total 5, blood smears were collected, of which 77 samples were found positive for microfilaria 1. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of filariasis was higher in groups of people with income Light harvesting over a wide range of wavelength using natural dyes of gardenia and cochineal for dye-sensitized solar cells.

Two natural dyes extracted from gardenia yellow Gardenia jasminoides and cochineal Dactylopius coccus were used as sensitizers in the assembly of dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs to harvest light over a wide range of wavelengths. The adsorption characteristics, electrochemical properties and photovoltaic efficiencies of the natural DSSCs were investigated. The adsorption kinetics data of the dyes were obtained in a small adsorption chamber and fitted with a pseudo-second-order model. The photovoltaic performance of a photo-electrode adsorbed with single-dye gardenia or cochineal or the mixture or successive adsorption of the two dyes, was evaluated from current-voltage measurements.

The energy conversion efficiency of the TiO2 electrode with the successive adsorption of cochineal and gardenia dyes was 0. Overall, a double layer of the two natural dyes as sensitizers was successfully formulated on the nanoporous TiO2 surface based on the differences in their adsorption affinities of gardenia and cochineal.

The influence of training programs on career aspirations: evidence from a cross-sectional study of nursing students in India. Nurses form the largest share of India 's health workforce. This paper explores the relationship between nurses' pre-service education and labor market aspirations. It investigates supply-side factors shaping students' career plans and studies the influence that nurse training institutes have on students' transition into the workforce.

A cross-sectional survey of nursing students and training administrators at 42 training institutes was conducted in in two Indian states, Bihar and Gujarat. Piloted questionnaires were used to collect information on the cost and quality of training programs, the background of students, and their career aspirations. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. A multivariate model on students' post-graduation plans indicated that students whose institutes provided training in non-technical skills, such as communication and teamwork, were less likely to aim for public sector employment upon completing their training.

Similarly, students who joined their training institute because they believed it to be the best place to access job opportunities were less likely to have intentions to seek public sector jobs. Students attending institutes that organized job fairs were also more likely to want to study further or seek private sector employment rather than seeking public sector employment. On the other hand, studying in Bihar and belonging to historically disadvantaged social groups deemed Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by the Constitution of India were factors positively associated with plans to seek public sector employment.

This study helps explain some of the supply-side factors driving the preference for public sector employment among nurses in India by highlighting the influential role of caste, state-level characteristics, and training programs on nursing students' post-graduation plans. It demonstrates that the strong preference for government jobs among nursing students is. The influence of APOE gene polymorphisms on BMD as genetic mediators of osteoporosis risk needs to be explored in Indian postmenopausal females where this disease is rising rampantly.

Minor allele frequencies of rs and rs were higher in osteoporotic females 0. Disease association analysis revealed a susceptibility haplotype CGTC in order of rs, rs, rs, rs and the carriers of this haplotype has higher risk of osteopenia OR 3. Females who possess either one copy or two copies of the haplotype have lesser BMD values of lumbar spine 0. Twenty-year trends in cardiovascular risk factors in India and influence of educational status. Urban middle-socioeconomic status SES subjects have high burden of cardiovascular risk factors in low-income countries.

To determine secular trends in risk factors among this population and to correlate risks with educational status we performed epidemiological studies in India. Five cross-sectional studies were performed in middle-SES urban locations in Jaipur, India from years to Cluster sampling was performed. Subjects men, women aged years evaluated were , in , , in , , in , , in , and , in Data were obtained by history, anthropometry, and fasting blood glucose and lipids estimation.

Mean values and risk factor prevalence were determined. Secular trends were identified using quadratic and log-linear regression and chi-squared for trend. Across the studies, there was high prevalence of overweight, hypertension, and lipid abnormalities. A comparative hydrogeochemical study was carried out in West Bengal, India covering three physiographic regions, Debagram and Chakdaha located in the Bhagirathi-Hooghly alluvial plain and Baruipur in the delta front, to demonstrate the control of geogenic and anthropogenic influences on groundwater arsenic As mobilization.

The As release is influenced by both geogenic i. Multiple geochemical processes, e. Interpersonal communication as an agent of normative influence : a mixed method study among the urban poor in India. Although social norms are thought to play an important role in couples' reproductive decisions, only limited theoretical or empirical guidance exists on how the underlying process works.

Using the theory of normative social behavior TNSB , through a mixed-method design, we investigated the role played by injunctive norms and interpersonal discussion in the relationship between descriptive norms and use of modern contraceptive methods among the urban poor in India. Spousal influence and interpersonal communication emerged as key factors in decision-making, waning in the later years of marriage, and they also moderated the influence of descriptive norms on behaviors.

Norms around contraceptive use, which varied by parity, are rapidly changing with the country's urbanization and increased access to health information. Open interpersonal discussion, community norms, and perspectives are integral in enabling women and couples to use modern family planning to meet their current fertility desires and warrant sensitivity in the design of family planning policy and programs. Characterization of black carbon in the ambient air of Agra, India : Seasonal variation and meteorological influence. This study characterizes the black carbon in Agra, India home to the Taj Mahal—and situated in the Indo-Gangetic basin.

The mean black carbon concentration is 9. Seasonally, the black carbon mass concentration is highest in winter, probably due to the increased fossil fuel consumption for heating and cooking, apart from a low boundary layer. The nocturnal peak rises prominently in winter, when the use of domestic heating is excessive. Meanwhile, the concentration is lowest during the monsoon season because of the turbulent atmospheric conditions and the process of washout by precipitation. The ratio of black carbon to brown carbon is less than unity during the entire study period, except in winter December.

This may be because that biomass combustion and diesel exhaust are major black carbon contributors in this region, while a higher ratio in winter may be due to the increased consumption of fossil fuel and wood for heating purposes. ANOVA reveals significant monthly variation in the concentration of black carbon; plus, it is negatively correlated with wind speed and temperature. A high black carbon mass concentration is observed at moderate m s-1 wind speed, as compared to calm or turbulent atmospheric conditions.

Does maternal autonomy influence feeding practices and infant growth in rural India? Shroff, Monal R. The high prevalence of child under-nutrition remains a profound challenge in the developing world. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children 3 to 5 months of age. Cross-sectional baseline data on mother-infant pairs were collected in 60 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. The mothers were enrolled in a longitudinal randomized behavioral intervention trial. In addition to anthropometric and demographic measures, an autonomy questionnaire was administered to measure different dimensions of autonomy e.

We conducted confirmatory factor analysis on maternal autonomy items and regression analyses on infant breast feeding and growth after adjusting for socioeconomic and demographic variables, and accounting for infant birth weight, infant morbidity, and maternal nutritional status. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed 3—5 month old infants.

Mothers with higher participation in decision-making in households had infants that were less underweight and less wasted. These results suggest that improving maternal financial and decision-making autonomy could have a positive impact on infant feeding and growth outcomes. Maternal autonomy was examined as a determinant of breast feeding and infant growth in children months of age. Results indicated that mothers with higher financial autonomy were more likely to breastfeed month old infants.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Community influences on intimate partner violence in India : Women's education, attitudes towards mistreatment and standards of living. Intimate partner violence IPV directed towards women is a serious public health problem. Women's education may offer protection against IPV, but uncertainty exists over how it might reduce risk for IPV at the community and individual levels. The objectives of this study are to: 1 disentangle community from individual-level influences of women's education on risk for IPV; 2 quantify the moderating influence of communities on individual-level associations between women's education and IPV; 3 determine if women's attitudes towards mistreatment and living standards at the community and individual levels account for the protective influence of women's education; and 4 determine if the protective influence of education against IPV is muted among women living in communities exhibiting attitudes more accepting of mistreatment.

Study information came from 68, married female participants in the National Family Health Survey conducted throughout India in Multilevel logistic regression was used to address the study objectives. IPV showed substantial clustering at both the state At the individual level, there was a strong non-linear association between women's education and IPV, partially accounted for by household living standards. The strength of association between women's education and IPV varied from one community to the next with evidence that the acceptance of mistreatment at the community level mutes the protective influence of higher education.

Furthermore, women's attitudes towards mistreatment and their standards of living accounted for community-level associations between women's education and IPV. Place of residence accounted for substantial variation in risk of IPV and also modified individual-level associations between IPV and women's education. At the community level, women's education appeared to exert much of its protective influence by altering population attitudes towards the acceptability of.

The main focus of this presentation will be to discuss basic research applied to This work which Physics and Medicine Dept. This paper discusses the influence of Indian culture on the creation of Mexican folklore to the end that the inclusion of such knowledge in classes where students are studying Spanish as a second language will make those classes less formal, more interesting, and more meaningful. The author provides many examples of Indian cultural traditions….

Atmospheric greenhouse gases GHGs , such as carbon dioxide CO2 and methane CH4 , are important climate forcing agents due to their significant impacts on the climate system.

CO2 and CH4 show a significant seasonal variation during the study period with maximum minimum CO2 observed during pre-monsoon monsoon , while CH4 recorded the maximum during post-monsoon and minimum during monsoon. Irrespective of the seasons, consistent diurnal variations of these gases are observed. Influences of prevailing meteorology air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity on GHGs have also been investigated. CO2 and CH4 show a strong positive correlation during winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon with correlation coefficients Rs equal to 0.

Analysis of this study reveals the major sources for CO2 are soil respiration and anthropogenic emissions while vegetation acts as a main sink, whereas the major source and sink for CH4 are vegetation and presence of hydroxyl OH radicals. Does low bone density influence symptoms and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia? Observations from rural South India.

The presence of more than one musculoskeletal disease has been found to impair quality of life QoL. The influence of low bone mineral density BMD on symptoms and function in those with fibromyalgia syndrome FMS is unknown. A cross sectional study was carried out on patients attending camps in rural South India. BMD was determined using quantitative ultrasound of the distal radius. Low BMD was seen in Coexisting musculoskeletal problems could also contribute to this. Therefore, medical practitioners and rehabilitation specialists should consider screening for bone density among those with FMS and should use this information to decide appropriate therapies to reduce pain and improve QoL.

Space use of wintering waterbirds in India : Influence of trophic ecology on home-range size. Namgail, Tsewang; Takekawa, John Y. Relationship between species' home range and their other biological traits remains poorly understood, especially in migratory birds due to the difficulty associated with tracking them. Advances in satellite telemetry and remote sensing techniques have proved instrumental in overcoming such challenges.

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We studied the space use of migratory ducks through satellite telemetry with an objective of understanding the influence of body mass and feeding habits on their home-range sizes. We marked 26 individuals, representing five species of migratory ducks, with satellite transmitters during two consecutive winters in three Indian states. We used kernel methods to estimate home ranges and core use areas of these waterfowl, and assessed the influence of body mass and feeding habits on home-range size.

Feeding habits influenced the home-range size of the migratory ducks. Carnivorous ducks had the largest home ranges, herbivorous ducks the smallest, while omnivorous species had intermediate home-ranges. Body mass did not explain variation in home-range size. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on migratory ducks, and it has important implications for their conservation and management. Detecting the influence of ocean process on the moisture supply for India summer monsoon from Satellite Sea Surface Salinity.

A strong contrast in the onset of Indian summer monsoon was observed by independent satellites: average rain rate over India subcontinent IS in June was more than doubled in than TRMM ; also observed are larger area of wet soil Aquarius and high water storage GRACE. This is an interesting testbed for studying the role of ocean on terrestrial water cycle, in particular the Indian monsoon, which has tremendous social-economical impact.

What is the source of extra moisture in or deficit in for the monsoon onset? Is it possible to quantify the contribution of ocean process that maybe responsible for redistributing the freshwater in favor of the summer monsoon moisture supply? This study aims to identify the influence of ocean processes on the freshwater exchange between air-sea interfaces, using Aquarius sea surface salinity SSS.

Based on the governing equation of the salt budget in the upper ocean, we define the freshwater flux, F, from the oceanic branch of the water cycle, including contributions from salinity tendency, advection, and subsurface process. We will present results of analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of F and evidence of and hypothesis on how the oceanic processes may enhance the moisture supply for summer Indian monsoon onset in comparing with Factors influencing timely initiation and completion of gestational diabetes mellitus screening and diagnosis - a qualitative study from Tamil Nadu, India.

To identify factors hindering or facilitating timely initiation and completion of the GDM screening and diagnosis process, our study investigated how pregnant women in rural and urban Tamil Nadu access and navigate different GDM related health services. The study was carried out in two settings: an urban private diabetes centre and a rural government primary health centre. Observations of the process of screening and diagnosis at the health centres as well as semi-structured interviews with 30 pregnant women and nine health care providers were conducted.

Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. There were significant differences in the process of GDM screening and diagnosis in the urban and rural settings. Several factors hindering or facilitating timely initiation and completion of the process were identified. Timely attendance required awareness, motivation and opportunity to attend. Women had to attend the health centre at the right time and sometimes at the right gestational age to initiate the test, wait to complete the test and obtain the test report in time to initiate further action.

All these steps and requirements were influenced by factors within and outside the health system such as getting right information from health care providers, clinic timings, characteristics of the test, availability of transport, social network and support, and social norms and cultural practices. Minimising and aligning complex stepwise processes of prenatal care and GDM screening delivery and attention to the factors influencing it are important for further improving and expanding GDM screening and related services, not only in Tamil Nadu but in other similar low and middle income settings.

This study stresses the importance of guidelines and diagnostic criteria which are simple and feasible on the ground.

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Influence of heat processing on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from cereals and pulses consumed in India. Influence of heat processing on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from food grains consumed in India was evaluated. Cereals - rice Oryza sativa , finger millet Eleusine coracana , sorghum Sorghum vulgare , wheat Triticum aestivum , and maize Zea mays , and pulses - chickpea Cicer arietinum - whole and decorticated, green gram Phaseolus aureus - whole and decorticated, decorticated black gram Phaseolus mungo , decorticated red gram Cajanus cajan , cowpea Vigna catjang , and French bean Phaseolus vulgaris were examined for zinc and iron bioaccessibility by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure.

Both pressure-cooking and microwave heating were tested for their influence on mineral bioaccessibility. Zinc bioaccessibility from food grains was considerably reduced upon pressure-cooking, especially in pulses. All the pressure-cooked cereals showed similar percent zinc bioaccessibility with the exception of finger millet. Bioaccessibility of zinc from pulses was generally lower as a result of pressure-cooking or microwave heating. The decrease in bioaccessibility of zinc caused by microwave heating ranged from Iron bioaccessibility, on the other hand, was significantly enhanced generally from all the food grains studied upon heat treatment.

Thus, heat treatment of grains produced contrasting effect on zinc and iron bioaccessibility. Investigation of crimson-dyed fibres for a new approach on the characterization of cochineal and kermes dyes in historical textiles. The colorant behaviour of cochineal and kermes insect dyes in experimentally-dyed and 28 artificially-aged samples of silk and wool was investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector UHPLC-PDA , liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry LC-ESI-MS and image scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy SEM-EDX.

Partial-least squares discriminant analysis PLS-DA was then used to model the acquired UHPLC-PDA data and assess the possibility of discriminating cochineal insect species, as well as their correspondent dyed and aged reference fibres.

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The resulting models helped to characterize a set of red samples from 95 historical textiles, in which UHPLC-PDA analyses have reported the presence of cochineal and kermes insect dyes. Analytical investigation of the experimentally-dyed and artificially-aged fibres has demonstrated that the ratio of compounds in the insects dye composition can change, depending on the dyeing conditions applied and the type of fibres used.

This was verified with PLS-DA models of the chromatographic data, facilitating the classification of the cochineal species present in the historical samples. The majority of these samples were identified to contain American cochineal , which is in agreement with historical and dye identification literature that describe the impact of this dyestuff into European and Asian dyeing practices, after the Iberian Expansion in the 16th century. The analytical results emphasize the importance of using statistical data interpretation for the discrimination of cochineal dyes, besides qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chromatograms.

Cultural conditioning: understanding interpersonal accommodation in India and the United States in terms of the modal characteristics of interpersonal influence situations. We argue that differences between the landscapes of influence situations in Indian and American societies induce Indians to accommodate to others more often than Americans.

To investigate cultural differences in situation-scapes, we sampled interpersonal influence situations occurring in India and the United States from both the influencee's Study 1 and the influencer 's Study 2 perspectives. We found that Indian influence situations were dramatically more likely than U. Yet Study 3 found that targets of influence felt no less free to decide whether to accommodate in India than the United States, but felt more concerned about the influencer.

To investigate the effects of situation-scapes on people's expectations and decisions, we exposed Indian and American participants to descriptions of situations from both societies with their origins obscured. Study 4 found that both groups of participants expected more positive consequences from accommodation in Indian situations than in American situations. Finally, Study 5 found that both groups decided to accommodate more often in Indian situations than in American situations.

At the same time, Indian participants were more likely than Americans to accommodate across all situations, but both groups converged over trials as they were exposed to more and more situations drawn from each other's cultures. We interpret these effects in terms of the default decisions or biases conditioned by people's recently encountered situations.

Hydrological influences on the water quality trends in Tamiraparani Basin, South India. The observations were made at weekly intervals in a water treatment and supply plant using standard methods. Graphical and statistical analyses were used for data exploration, trend detection and assessment. Box-Whisker plots of annual and seasonal changes in variables indicated apparent trends being present in the data and their response to the seasonal influence of the monsoon rainfall.

Further, the examination of the median values of the variables indicated that changes in the direction of trend occurred during , especially in pH, EC and TH. The presence of monotonic trend in all the water quality variables was confirmed, however, with independent direction of change.

The trend line was fitted by the method of least squares. The estimated values indicated significant increases in EC 28 microS cm -1 while significant decreases were observed in turbidity 90 NTU , pH 0. The changes induced in river flow by the addition of a stabilizing reservoir, the influence of seasonal and spatial pattern of monsoon rainfall across the river basin and the increased agriculture appear causative factors for the water quality trends seen in the Tamiraparani River system. The importance of the mobile phone is evidenced by predictions that there will be 1.

A country that is spearheading this movement toward the digital era is India.

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To illustrate this, India is expected to surpass the United States in and record the second highest smartphone sales globally. Despite the rising penetration and adoption of smartphones, there is limited advertising research that sheds light on the Indian smartphone user. Findings reveal that entertainment impacts Indians' attitudes toward smartphone advertising while informativeness is stronger for the American sample.

Collectivism was found to be the driving force behind socializing activities on social networking sites for Indian consumers. Implications are discussed. Influence of coal-based thermal power plants on the spatial-temporal variability of tropospheric NO2 column over India. The availability of relatively higher spatial 0. The annual and seasonal summer and winter distributions shows very high mean tropospheric NO 2 in specific pockets over India especially over the Indo-Gangetic plains up to These pockets correspond with the known locations of major thermal power plants.

The tropospheric NO 2 over India show a large seasonal variability that is also observed in the ground NO 2 data. The increase of tropospheric NO 2 per gigawatt is found to be 1. The strong seasonal variation is attributed to the enhancement or suppression of NO 2 due to various controlling factors which is discussed here. The recent increasing trend over rural thermal power plants pockets like Agori and Korba is due to recent large capacity additions in these regions.

Given the rationale and significance of this inter-disciplinary approach, the paper with the help of recorded radon time series shall illustrate the complex time variability that needs to be quantified in terms of influencing environmental factors before residual field can be used to search anticipated earthquake precursory signals. Monitoring of radon Rn is carried out using a gamma ray radon monitoring probe based on 1.

Measurement of radon concentration at 15 min interval has been done at 10m depth in air column above the variable water level in a 68m deep borehole together with simultaneous recordings of ground water level and environmental variables such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, rain fall etc. Apart from strong seasonal cycle in Rn concentration, with high values in summer July to September and low values in the winter months January to March , the most obvious feature in the time series is the distinct nature of daily variation pattern.

Four types of daily variations observed are a positive peaks, b negative peaks and c sinusoidal peaks and d long intervals when daily variations are conspicuously absent, particularly in winter and rainy season. Examination and correlation with environmental factors has revealed that when surface atmospheric temperature is well below the water temperature in borehole later is constant around 19oC in all seasons temperature gradients are not conducive to set up the convection currents for the emanation of radon to surface, thus explaining the absence of daily variation in radon concentration in winter.

Pischke, Claudia R. In India , tobacco kills people every year though the burden of tobacco is faced disproportionately in poorer states such as Bihar. Teachers may be a particularly influential group in setting norms around tobacco use in the Indian context. However, tobacco use among teachers remains high and perceptions of tobacco-related health risks are…. Delhi, India. Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India , with a population of 16 million and is located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River.

The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians.

However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. The wild cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae Cockerell Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae is considered to be the most important pest in cactus pear plantations.

In Mexico, there are seven natural enemies that provide natural biological control of D. However, their role and impact have not been evaluated. In this article, we report on aspects of the population biology of Chilocorus cacti L. Coleoptera: Coccinellidae , which is considered one of the main natural enemies of D. We also conducted experiments to evaluate the consumption of C. Changes in the survival function of D. Both larvae and adults of C. The survival analysis showed that the presence of C. For this reason, natural enemies other than C.

Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2. India is currently experiencing degraded air quality, and future economic development will lead to challenges for air quality management. Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for , under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy-efficient technologies. The impacts of individual source sectors on PM2. We find that PM2. Damodaran Dharnidhar Murali Ravi Dr. Sandeep Mohit Shruti Kalyan S. Vishal Rahul Vishal Dr. Subir K. Rishi Mohan Asim Kr.

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Sehgal reckittbenckiser. Chauhan14 simc. Jayaram groupm. Khan Bcone. LindgrenJr gmail. Yadav3 aexp. COM swetank. Asawa unilever. Nair pfizer. IT sanjayandnikku rediffmail. Kumar gmail. Biz Gmail. Yogesh gmail. Com bhavik yahoo. Acchan mdlz. COM praveenth2 gmail. Choudhury edelman. COM priyangshu. Mohan hotmail. SaurabhMadan gmail. Ghosh itc. Rao ap. Tiruvorriyur Adipurisvarar temple Adi-Sankaracharya, with disciples Kulambanda Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram General view before renovation Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram General view before renovation Kulambanda Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram General view after renovation Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram Garbhagriha, west face Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram Bhikshatanar Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Dakshinamurti Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram Lingodbhavar Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram Brahma Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gagaikondasolisvaram Durga Kulambandal Jagannathesvarar temple Gangaikondasolisvaram Dakshinamuiti igriva Mannarkoyil Rajagopalasvamin temple Rasi-Chakram, wood-carving Sitibcta Bhairavar temple Srivimana Sitibcta Bhairavar temple Garbhagriha wall, with Bhairavar Sitibeta Bhairavar temple Somaskandar bronze Sitibeta Bhairavar temple Bhairavar bronze Kolar Kolaramma temple Rajendra shrine, adhishthanam mouldings, with Rajendra's inscription Kolar Kolaramma temple Central shrine, srivimana superstructure Kolar Kolaramma temple Another view Tiruvalangadu Vataranya temple Xataraja bronze, Madras Museum Tiruvalangadu Vataranva temple Urdhvatandavamurti bronze Tiruvalangadu Vataranya temple Kali bronze Tribhuvani Varadaraja Pertimal temple General view Tribhuvani Varadaraja Perumal temple Garbhagriha Tribhuvani Varadaraja Perumal temple Upapitham and adhishthanam Tribhuvani Varadaraja Perumal temple Miniature panel in adhishthanam Mannargudi Kailasanathar temple Somaskandar bronze Tiruvengadu Tanjavur Art Gallery Bhikshatanar bronze Tiruvengadu Madras Museum Ardhanarisvarar front view bronze Tiruvengadu Madras Museum Ardhanarisvarar rear view bronze Olakkur Agastyesvarar temple Srivimana Olakkur Agastyesvarar temple Dakshinamurti Vikkanampundi Vijayalayasolisvaram Chandesvarar Vikkanampundi Vijayalayasolisvaram Ganapati Vikkanampundi Vijayalayasolisvaram Virabhadrar Vikkanampundi Yijayalayasolisvaram Varahi — 1 Vikkanampundi Yijayalayasolisvaram Brahmi Tiruppainjili Nilivanesvarar temple Ardhanari Tiruppainjili Nilivanesvarar temple Dakshinamurti Tiruppainjili Nilivanesvarar temple Bhikshatanar Tiruppainjili Nilivanesvarar temple Amman bronze Tiruppainjili Nilivanesvarar temple Amman bronze rear view Tiruppainjili Nilivanesvarar temple Siva and Uma bronze Tiruvasi MarruraKvaradesvarar temple Durga Tiruvasi Marrurai-varadesvarar temple Bhairavar Tiruvasi Marrurai-varadesvarar temple Bhogasakti bronze - Tiruvanaikka J ambukes varam Subrahmanyar - Tiruvanaikka Jambukesvaram Dakshinamurti - Tiruvanaikka Jambukesvaram Nataraja bronze Tenner i Tenneri Tenneri 40 1.

Taadi-Malingi Sivapuram Konerirajapuram In comparison, the Mauryas ruled only for about years b. The Vijayanagara empire lasted for about years a. Rajaraja I can legitimately claim to have laid the real foun- dations for the glory and longevity of the Chola empire. The Cholas had the great good fortune of his being followed by a line of successors equally adept in the arts of war and administration. His son Rajendra I and his grandsons Rajadhiraja I, Rajendradeva II and Virarajendra, who followed him on the throne in that order, each has a claim to be rankde among the greatest generals of their or any other age — a unique record in the history of mankind.

The Cholas were no less great in the fields of administration, culture and art. They were the greatest temple builders India has known, and during the period under survey, in particular, their achievements in this held attained unprecedented and unsurpassed heights. A few Jain temples were also built in this period. In his formative years, he came under the powerful and constructive influence of his great-grand-aunt Sembiyan Mahadevi the queen of Gandara- ditya and mother of Uttama Chola and of his own elder sister Kundavai.

But Arulmolidevan as he was then known resisted the popular pressure and gracefully let his paternal uncle ascend the throne since the latter greatly coveted it. In this act, Rajaraja I exhibited not only great self- denial but political insight and statesmanship as well. Occasionally, embellished forms of these titles were used. Rajaraja I made a notable departure from prior practice by introducing in the prasasti part of his inscrip- tions an up-to-date account of the conquests and other achievements of his reign, so that, as the years go by, we find the prasasti increas- ing in size.

The prasastis generally describe his conquests in chronological order, giving particulars of great value for the historian and belying the notion generally prevalent among western historians that Indians had no historical sense. While the originals in copper plates or palm-leaf manuscripts of grants, royal writs and other documents have been mostly lost in the course of the political convulsions that the country passed through, it is fortunate that copies thereof, so assiduously made and preserv- ed for us by having them engraved on the sacred walls of stone- temples built by them in such large numbers, have come down to us for our knowledge and enlightenment.

According to the prasastis of Rajaraja I, his first important conquest was over the Cheras already referred to, the Chera contemporary being Bhaskara Ravivarman Tiruvadi a. It is often considered that the Indian mind does not possess an historical sense because it is unused to thinking of the past in terms of sequence and was slow to record chronological history : External events alone allowed scholars to date certain facts accurately.

He next conquer- ed the Vengi country and supported Saktivarman and his brother Vimaladitya of the Eastern Chalukyas against their rivals. Gangapadi, Tadigaipadi and Nolambapadi consisting of parts of southern and eastern Karnataka and of the north-western districts of Tamil Nadu North Arcot, Salem, Dharmapuri etc. So were Kollam and Kudamalai Nadu Coorg. The land of the Rashtrakutas, called Irattaipadi- elarai-laksham Rattapadi — 7,50, , which had been already- overrun by the Western Chalukyas, was also conquered and added to the Chola empire.

Then the kingdom of Kalinga, lying between the Godavari and the Mahanadi rivers, was overrun. Rajaraja I then invaded Ila-mandalain Sri Lanka and annexed it. By this time, the naval supremacy of the Cholas had been well-established in the Indian Ocean, and his reign cul- minated with the conquest of the 12, islands off the western Arabian sea. Thus his kingdom extended from Sri Lanka in the south to the basin of tiie Tungabhadra in the north and Mahendragiri The Mahendra mountains in the north-east.

The total strength of the stand- ing army must thus have been considerably larger than this figure, when we take into account his engagements in other sectors such as the Pandya country, Malainadu, Vengi and Sri Lanka. The fact that the commanders of the various armies dreaded defeat and the consequent wrath of the king is evident from the endowments made by a large number of them to the Rajarajesvaram temple at Tanjavur, seeking divine blessings for averting defeat. Rajaraja I organised a highly bureaucratic system of adminis- tration which aimed at central stability and local autonomy.

His revenue administration in particular was noteworthy. It is a pity that most of the original documents have disappeared and we have to content ourselves with just a few glimpses of the elaborateness and complexity of the revenue organization, as can be gleaned from stone inscrip- tions and royal copper plate grants such as the Larger Leyden Grant.

It is of interest to note that some decades later in England, William I the Conqueror organized the land-survey recorded in the Domesday Book. Before his accession to the throne, Rajaraja was known as Arulmoli Devan. Many of them have either built temples of their own or donated bronzes to temples. The greatest event of the life of Rajaraja I was the building of the Rajarajesvaram at Tanjavur.

It may be remembered that he was a close associate and disciple of Sembiyan Mahadevi, who, as we know, rebuilt the Tirunallam temple of the Devaram hymns fame as the Gandaradityam and clearly stated the fact of such conver- sion in her dedicatory inscription at Konerirajapuram. In the absence of such a statement, it seems inconceiv- able that the great temple would have been erected on an older foundation. Some hold that the stones for this temple came from the banks of the Narmada.

This view appears rather far-fetched. The quarrying area for the stones used in this temple should have been the same as for the other innumerable temples of the region. The earliest reference to this temple occurs in the nineteenth regnal year of Rajaraja I.

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The stupik-kudam copper pot for the hnial was handed over to the temple authorities on the 2 75th day of the twenty-fifth year of his reign, and the consecration of RAJARAJA I 7 the temple should have taken place about that time. Rajaraja I seems to have died in or after his twenty-ninth regnal year; before his death, he ordered the recording on the srivimana of this temple all gifts to the temple made by himself, his elder sister, his queens and other donors ; these inscriptions contain, in particular, the fullest and most detailed description of the bronzes gifted by the king and other donors, incorporating such details as height, weight, metal-composition, whether solid or hollow, whether seated or standing, descriptions of the pitha and the prabha, num- ber of hands and other adjuncts, attendant deities, and numer- ous other details baffling the imagination — a record again unique in history.

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A fuller account of the temple will be found in the next chapter, which deals with the temples of the time of Rajaraja I. Siva sports with His Consort on the Kailasa Mountain, as long as Hari Vishnu performs meditative sleep Yoga-nidra on the serpent-couch on the ocean of milk, and as long as the sole light of all the world dispels the dense darkness of the world, so long may the Chola family protect from danger the circle of the whole earth. This must have been a composition in praise of Rajaraja I, recounting his great victories and was evidently different from the Rajarajesvara-nalakam, which was staged in the temple at Tanjavur SII, II, p.

We do not know the language of this composition, whether it was Tamil or Sanskrit, nor have we any trace of it now. It lay on the border between the medieval kingdoms of Vengi and Kalinga. On this hill, there is a temple of Gokarnesvarar, with shrines for Kunti and Yudhishthirar. There are four undated inscriptions in this place.

The texts are fragmentary and no safe deductions could be drawn from them. They describe the setting up of two jayaslambhas pillars of victory on Mahendragiri by one Rajendra after he had defeated one Vimaladitya of the Kulutas. Venkayya, and following him, others, identified this Vimaladitya with the Vengi prince Vimaladitya son of Vishnuvardhana of the Eastern Chalukyas and concluded that he was defeated by Rajendra Chola in battle and taken prisoner to the Chola court.

Recently, B. Venkatakrishna Rao, in his History of the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi written with a touch of chauvinism , has challenged the usual identification of the victor Rajendra and has postulated that the Mahendragiri battle should be ascribed to the period of Kulottunga 1 and as part of the Kalinga expedition a. This identification seems far-fetched. My own view is that the victor at Mahendragiri was indeed Rajendra Chola I and that the vanquished was Vimaladitya of the Kulutas ruling to the north of Vengi and not Vimaladitya of the Eastern Chalukyas who presumably went to the Chola court of his own free will — and not as a prisoner of war — after being driven out of Vengi.

The last-mentioned figures in an inscription of the twenty - ninth year of Rajaraja I as the donor of eight silver kalasams finials weighing 1, kalanjus to the Loga-Mahadevi Isvaram built at Tiruvaiyaru by Rajaraja Ts queen of that name. We know that he married Kundavai, daughter of Rajaraja I, and was restored to the rulership of Vengi with Chola help and ruled for seven years a. It is not improbable that Rajendra Chola I subdued a recalcitrant chief at Mahendragiri to secure the borders of Vengi, of which he was the overlord.

As the Chola victory at Mahendragiri is not found included in the description of the Gangetic campaign of Rajendra Ts, it seems likely that it took place independently of and before it, in an effort to re-establish the Chola protege Vimaladitya on the Vengi throne and to help overcome the enemies on his borders. It seems safe to conclude that, at the close of Rajendra I s reign, Mahendragiri formed part of Vengi and of the Chola empire. But a new interpretation was offered by the late S. Kerala Society Papers, 2.

Again, the late T. This explanation is far-fetched as Tamil kings never interfered in the normal functioning of local bodies except in cases of maladministration, defalcation or gross indiscipline. II, Again verse 91 of Kulottunga-Solan-Pillait-Tamil, a poem on Kulottunga II, describes that the hero with his army destroyed the fort of Vilijnam on the west coast and obtained the entire proceeds of the pearl-oysters at the Salai of Poraiyan The Cheras.

Though requested by the subjects to occupy the Chola throne , in order to destroy the persistently blinding-darkness of the powerful Kali age , Arunmolivarman, who under- stood the essence of royal conduct, desired not the kingdom for himself even in his mind, while his paternal uncle coveted his i. Applying his mind to the devotion of Sarva Siva utilising his wealth in the act of performing His worship employing all his retinue in the construction of houses i.

XXX Arunmolivarman was himself then installed in the administration of the kingdom as if to wash away the stain of the earth caused by the Kali age of his body bathed by the water during the ceremony of installation ; and the ends of the quarters heavily roared with the tumul- tuous sounds of the war-drums, rows of bells and bugles, kettle-drums, tambourines and conches. Surely the milky ocean formed itself into a circle in the shape of his parasol in the sky and came to see its own daughter Sri Lakshmi resting on the chest of this king.

Indeed, the ladies of the lords of the quarters, who were taken captive during the diguijaya i. Hence, it is difficult to comprehend the greatness of the great. This king — a pile of matchless prosperity, majesty, learning, strength of arm, prowess, heroism and courage — invaded and conquered, in order, all the quarters commencing with the direction of Trisanku i.

King Amarabhujanga being seized, other dissolute kings, whose rule was secretly mischievous, being much afraid of him at heart, wishes to hide themselves somewhere just like serpents with sliding crooked bodies. The commandant of this ornament of the Solar race, the hereditary home of the Goddess of victory, captured the town of Vilinda whose moat was the sea, whose extensive ramparts were glorious and high and which was impregnable to the enemy warriors.

The Lord of the Raghavas i. Ravana with sharp-edged arrows ; but, this terrible General of that king Arunmolivarman crossed the ocean by ships and burnt the Lord of Lanka Ceylon. Hence Rama is surely sur- passed by this Chola General. This is strange that though Satyasraya fled to avoid misery from the attack of his i. But this is not strange, that his flight is due to i. Bhima with a mace. Having conquered the country which w r as the creation of Rama i.

Parasurama whose beloved vow was to annihilate the whole ot the Kshatra Kshatriya race the country MIDDLE CHOLA TEMPLES I 2 which was adorned with pious people, was matchless and inaccessible on account of the mountains and the ocean, he caused abundant joy to all kings that held a bow in their hands , and made his commands shine on the rows of the diadems of all rulers of the earth. Ill, Ill, 8. Charla Plates of the seventh year of Vira Rajendra — Saka — a. South Indian Inscriptions Vol. II, Pts. IV, It registers the extent of devadana lands belonging to the temple of Mahadevar at Tiruk- kalar.

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Tirukkalar is 16 kms south-east of Mannargudi, Tanjavur District. We do not know when exactly its construction began, but it might have been some time in or before the nineteenth regnal year of the king. The temple was built of stone which might have been brought from a hillock called Mammalai, eight miles 13 kms from Tiruchirapalli and about thirty miles 48 kms from Tanjavur. The first-to-be-engraved and most important inscription on the walls of the temple SII, II, 1 consists of paragraphs; the engraving was begun on an order of the king issued on the 20th day of his twenty-sixth regnal year, and the inscription continues into the twenty-ninth the last known regnal year of the king.

It appears that in his twenty-ninth year, the king had a premonition of his approaching end, and so he was anxious to have all the gifts made so far placed on permanent record in stone on the walls of the temple itself. Paragraphs refer to gifts made in the twenty-fifth year, th day; paras in the twenty-sixth year, 14th day; paras in the twenty-sixth year, 27th day; para 17 in the twenty-sixth year, 34th day; para 18 breaking the chronological order of the list, as mentioned above in the twenty-fifth year, th day; paras in the twenty -sixth year, th day; para 33 in the twenty-sixth year, th day; paras in the twenty-sixth year, th day; and finally, paras various gifts made between the twenty-third and twenty-ninth regnal years.

As stated earlier, we do not know when exactly the construc- tion of the temple began. It must have attracted many gifts soon after the start and during the adhivasa stage itself. It is clear from para 18 of the inscription that the final consecration should have taken place with the installation of the stupi on the th day of the twenty-fifth year. Both in its simplicity and in its grandeur, it has very few compeers. The temple complex covers an overall area of the size of a rectangle of It consists of the srivimana, the ardhamandapa , the mahamandapa , the mukhamandapa and a Mandi-mandapa in front.

There is a vast courtyard with a circumscribing tiruch-churru-maligai a columned, raised, covered verandah , measuring Outside this wall, there are two further walls of enclosure, the outer being a defensive one with bastions and gun-holes. In the courtyard or prakara , there are shrines for Amman and Subrahmanyar, which are the major ones, and a number of other smaller ones. A later mandapa in the north- eastern corner of the courtyard and two gopurams in the eastern perimeter walls complete the complex.

The temple came into existence in a. Close to it he also built a Vishnu temple called that of Narayana, so named after his father. The construction of these two temples is recorded a Kanarese inscription found on a slab planted in the verandah of the Vishnu temple. One of the verses of this inscription describes the Mahadevesvara temple as the Devalaya Chakravarti , the Emperor among temples. This Siva temple facing east consists of a shrine housing a Linga with an ante-chamber a parti enclosed and partly open hall in front.

It measures feet The fourth storey is damaged and its finial is missing. The Siva temple at Ittagi is a century later than the Rajarajesvaram at Tanjavur built by Rajaraja I, but the fine expression Devalaya Chakaravarli coined by the Kanarese poet can be applied with greater justification though anachronistically to the Rajarajesvaram. As one approaches the complex from the east, a deep uneven moat of varying width and depth confronts us; at the entrance to the temple, it has been filled up to provide a passage on a level with the floor of the temple.

After crossing the moat, we come across the wall of fortification with bastions, which runs all along the fringe of the moat. This wall is broken by a gateway whose upper inner surface is semi-circular and top flat, though somewhat raised from the general level of the wall. An inner and more massive wall of enclosure runs all round the four sides of the temple, parallel to the outer wall of defence and removed about 6.

It is over the east- ern opening on this wall that the outer and first gopuram rises. It is a massive stone structure ; the entablature is, however, unpretentious, the super- structure being stocky and short. This entrance admits us into the extensive courtyard in the middle of which is located the main temple. This inner wall of enclosure, the central structural complex and the subsidiary shrines constitute the hard core of the temple. The wall of en- closure is distinct in design from the outer walls of defence. The Srivimana The crowning constituent of the entire edifice is of course the srivimana itself, which rises to a grand height of The garbhagriha measures The figure mentioned by Fergusson and others following him was The kalasam or stupi measures, not 3.

Possibly the original measurement assessed on the basis of figures given in the inscriptions could be inclusive of the portion of the stupi which is inserted into the sikhara. The cella is double-storeyed, each storey being indicated by a massive overhanging cornice; the double-storeyed cella is a further development of the same principle found in the Koranganatha temple at Srinivasanallur.

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Sculptures on the Garbhagriha walls The walls of the first tier of the garbhagriha are adorned with a set of life-size sculptures of a variety of forms of Siva. There are six sculptures on each wall except the eastern one, three on either side of the central opening, which exposes the sculpture in the vestibule. They include a pair of dvarapalas on each of the three walls immediately flanking the central opening.

On the eastern wall there is however only one sculpture on each side of the entrance to the garbhagriha ; on the south wall, an extra figure has been accommodated, thus disturbing the symmetry. These figures are given below : South Wall West Wall 1. Bhikshatanar 1. Hariharar 2. Virabhadrar 2. Lingodbhavar 3. Dvarapala 3. Ardhanari- 1. Lingobha- svarar var South side 2. Gangadharar 2. Sivastand- without Uma ing 3.

Pasupata- murti North 4. Dakshina- 5. Chandrasekh- 5. Pasupata- murti extra arar without murti or prabhavali Virabhadrar 6. Kalantakar 6. Chandrasekh- 6. Siva-Alin- arar with ginamurti prabhavali 7. Nataraja In addition to these sculptures, there are three on the southern and three on the northern side of the mahamandapa. They are : South side North side 1.

Ganesa 1. Bhairavar with urdhvajvala 2. Vishnu with His Consorts 2. Mahishasuramardini 3. Gajalakshmi 3. Sarasvati In the corresponding niches of the second tier above the intervening cornice, Siva as Tripurantakar is repeated in different poses, corresponding to the deities mentioned above. Plates Over this base rises the towering structure of thirteen storeys [talas. Topping the storeys of the srivimana is a single block of granite 7. Over this block which forms the floor of the grim are Nandis in pairs adorning the four corners, each Nandi measuring 1.

It is on this granite slab that the griva, the sikhara and the finial stand; the gilded stupi, which alone is said to be about 3. Each storey is adorned with ornamental salas and kutas, combining strength with grace. The gradual upward sweep of the srivimana towards the sky is breath-taking; in this respect it outrivals the Pallava shore temple at Mamallapuram and even the grand srivimana attempted by his son at Gangaikondasolapuram. The srivimana is pyramidal in form and not curvilinear as that of the Gangaikondasolisvaram is.

The ton cupola-shaped sikhara and the golden no longer so stupi give a fitting crown to an all- stone edifice, which is a marvel of engineering skill unparalleled by any structure anywhere in India built during that period. That this monument has so splendidly survived for about a millenium now, in spite of the ravages of time, the political vicissitudes and the utter misuse to which the temple campus was put during the wars between the French and the English, is itself a tribute to the skill and attainment of the Dravidian sthapati in building a stone structure so solid, so perfect and of such magnitude.

The garbhagriha rests on a high-moulded upapitham and adhi- shthanam. The upapitham measures cms in height and the adhi- shlhanam measures cms; the entire basement thus measuring cms. In the sanctum sanctorum is a monolithic Linga of giant proportions rising to the full height of the two storeys of the garbhagriha.

There runs a corridor between the outer bahya - bhitti and the inner antara-bhitti walls of the garbhagriha ; in this respect the temple resembles the Pallava Kailasanatha temple at Kanchi. The inter-space is again two storeyed, corresponding to the storeys of the garbhagriha ; in the lower storey, the vestibule is adorned with three stone sculptures of exquisite workmanship.

Both faces of the walls of the vestibule are covered with mural paintings of great artistic merit and co-eval with the monument, with an overlaid layer of paintings of the seventeenth century when the city served as the capital of the Nayakas of Tan- javur and the temple received considerable attention from these rulers.

In the corridor corresponding to the second storey of the aditala 'of the vertical wall portion of the srivimana, there is a set of panels of stone sculptures in high relief depicting 81 karanas of Bharatanalyam, out of the total of ; this would really mark the first known plastic representation of these karanas anywhere in India. Against the remaining unrepresented karanas, there are mere blank blocks of stones. There is a small seated Bhogasakti in bronze by the side of the north jamb of the doorway of the garbhagriha.

It also served as the bathing hall of the deity, as is seen from the snapana platform bathing dais in the centre of the hall. The ardhamandapa is approached from the sides as well as the front; the side gateways are imposing. As the adhishthana of the temple is very high, the floor of the garbhagriha and of the ardhamandapa is almost about 6.

The steps are in two stages, the first flight being from the courtyard level to the top of the apapitham; there is a small landing there, followed by the second flight of steps reaching up to the threshold of the gateway. Massive sinuous and ornamental balustrades flank these flights. Both these gateways are flanked by huge imposing dvarapalas carved in the true Rajaraja style. One could presume the active participation of the son in this sacred and unprecedented building venture ol the father and the association of his name with the temple.

There is a reference to the existence of a gateway known as the Anukka tiru-vasal, which has not been identified so far. If one keeps in mind the close association of Rajendra I with Anukkiyar Paravai Nangai of Tiruvarur and Panayavaram fame , one could rea- sonably presume that the northern gateway to the ardhamandapa opposite the Vikrama solan tiru-vasal was the Anukka tiru-vasal. Bronzes of Vitankar and the king Rajaraja I both later substitutions are housed in this hall.

Two giant dvarapalas guard the entrance to this hall. The mukhamandapa is in front of the mahamandapa and is approached by a sweeping flight of broad steps leading up to the hall. Dvarapalas In all there are 18 dvarapalas in the temple, all massive and grandly conceived in the Rajaraja style. Two are on the front face of the first tier of the Rajarajan tiruvasal, two flank the entrance to the mukhamandapa, two adorn the entrance to the ardhamandapa, two are there, one on either side of each of the two entrances to the ardhamandapa from the flanks; two are there on either side of the entrance from the ardhamandapa to the garhhagriha and two on either side of each of the openings in the south, west and north walls of the garhhagriha.

It is 3. Krishnan Raman Tiruch-churru-maligai Reverting to the wall of enclosure surrounding this shrine and its adjuncts, we learn from the inscriptions that at the behest of the Lord Sri Rajaraja deva, his able minister and general, by name Narakkan Krishnan Raman alias Mummadisola Brah- mamarayan built this wall of enclosure SII, II, 31, 33 and For convenience of reference, we may call it the Krishnan Raman wall.

It may be noted that the same general finds mention twice in the Larger Leyden Grant. In fact, the wall is part of a multi-pillared raised platform running all along the four sides of the temple ; it rises to a height of nearly 6. Dikpalas The cellas in the four corners and the middle of the walls on the south, west and north, are crowned with vimanas, consisting of a griva, a sikhara and a stupi; thus we have seven such shrines.

In the cella in the north-eastern corner, Isanadeva is housed; Nirutti is housed in the cella in the middle of the north wall, Kubera in the north-western corner cella, while Varuna is in the western cella ; the rest of the cellas are without any sculptures at present but must have housed the remaining Ashta-dikpalas ; this, as mentioned elsewhere, is confirmed by the references in inscriptions on the eastern part of the wall of enclosure to the shrines of Agni deva and Isana deva, which are said to be located to the south and north of the Rajarajan tiru-vasal.

We have further confirmation of an unequivocal nature about the setting up of eight shrines for the eight dikpalas from a record of the third year of Rajendra I SII, II, This record lists the gifts of kalasams pinnacles for the various shrines in the temple, made by Guru Isana Siva Pandita, the Chief Priest of the Raja- rajesvaram temple till the twenty-ninth year of Rajaraja I, for being placed on the shrines alavangalil.

The shrine of Indra, who is the regent of the east, seems to have been located in the second inner gopuram itself, for which five kalasams had apparently been provided by the king himself. So only seven pots pinnacles are provided for the remaining seven deities. In the cella on the west wall, to the immediate north of the corner shrine, is a massive Ganesa sculpture, which the inscription describes as the Parivaralayattu Pillaiyar Ganapatiyar to distinguish it from the Pillaiyar of the main temple Alayattu Pillaiyar and the numerous other icons of Pillaiyar in metal, dedicated to the temple by pious personages of the royal household and nobles.

The original image of Ganapati set up in the days of Rajaraja I in the parivara-alaya would appear to have been replaced at some later point of time and the one we see now in the cella is a substitute; the orginal, which is majestic and beautiful and is of the same quality of stone as is used for the sculptures of the original temple, is now found kept by the Archaeological Survey in the southern verandah tiruch-churru-maligai of the temple, where temporarily they have located their field office and spot- museum.

Soundararajan Indian Temple Styles, p. Durga is not an ashta-parivaradevata. At a later stage Fakshmi replaces Jyeshtha. For a discus- sion see my Early Chola Temples f pp. The Bhairavar image, now placed loosely in the mukhaman- dapa oh the temple, might be the original ashta-parivara-devata. The Subrahmanyar idol is again not in its proper place, nor does it appear to be the original one; it is in the north-western section of the prakara and is housed in a structure of florid style built by one of the Nayak kings in the seventeenth century a.

The only shrine standing as originally built is that of Chandesvarar, which is north of and close to the srivimana ; it contains some valuable inscriptions of Rajaraja I. None of the other shrines can be traced now. The temple was Sri Rajarajesvaram m Tanjavur in the subdivision of Tanjavur in the district of Pandyakulasani. The deity was referred to as Paramasvamin or Rajarajesvaram Udaiyar. Karuvur Devar, a contemporary of Rajaraja I and his son, in his hymn called Tiruvisaippa has sung of Rajarajesvaram and Gangaikondasolisvaram.

Even during the Pandyan period when the Amman temple was built in the courtyard of the main temple, the foundation inscription refers to the Amman shrine in the following words, "Tanjavur Udaiyar Sri Rajarajesvaram Udaiyar Koyihl. Even here the main temple is called Sri Rajarajesvaram and the Amman is named after the Pandyan queen. Tiru Pcruvudaiyar is a variant that has come into vogue in the subsequent period, with Brihat-Isvarar as its Sanskrit equivalent.

But in none of the epigraphs in this temple or which refer to it do we get these names. Therefore there does not scent to be anv justification for the name of Brihades- varar for the deitv of the main shrine and Brihannayaki for the Amman of the temple of Raja- rajesvaram at Tanjavur. It seems onlv fair to call this temple by the name its builder gave it. On the same grounds there is no reason for the use of the term Brihadisvarar being applied to the deity of the temple at Gangaikondasolapuram.

Epigraphs give the temple the name of Gangaikonda-solisvaram only. The walls of fortification with the bastions and the moat round it find mention in the Tiruvisaippa of Karuvur Devar, the guru of Rajaraja I. Hence these elements of the periphery of the temple also are not likely to be later accretions but part of the master plan of the grand temple as originally conceived.

This is the first instance of such defence works in any South Indian temple. The Rajarajesvaram not only was a temple meant for public worship but also served as the chapel-royal for the use of the royal family whose palace was in its vicinity. Hence perhaps the works of fortification. The Rajarajesvaram temple was built completely with its necessary adjuncts during the time of Rajaraja I himself, based on a well-defined and stately plan which was preserved till its completion Tanjore District Gazetteer.

The Chandesvarar shrine which was very much a part of the original master plan was built before his conquest of the 12, islands; the shrines of Dakshinamurti, Subrahmanyar and the Amman however are of different later dates. According to a Marathi inscription dated in Saka A. In fact, the temple became out of bounds for the civilian population, and worship was perhaps even abandoned, during this period. It lies further east of the Amman shrine. In the early Chola period, we have many instances of the installation in the main shrine itself of metal images of Devi as Bhogesvari, Uma Bhattaraki or Palliyarai-Nachchiyar as well as of the installation in the srivimana niches of stone images of Durga, Lakshmi and Saras- vati.

One of the four inscriptions of Parantaka I found in the Adityesvaram temple at Tiruverumbur refers to the consecration of Uma Bhattarivar; this must refer to either the Bhogasakti Amman or to the Palliyarai-Nachchiyar and not to any deity with an independent shrine for it. The Mangalambika shrine at Tirukkandiyur was originally a Siva temple, re-dedicated later on as an Amman shrine; the Vada-Kailasam and the Ten- Kailasam at Tiruvaivaru are actually Siva temples and not Amman shrines, built in the days of Rajaraja I and Rajendra I respectively; the same pattern was followed in the case of the Gangaikonda-cholapuram temple, where the Vada-Kailasam and Ten-Kailasam temples were originally both dedicated only to Siva; this is evident from the sculptures found on the garbhagriha walls of these two temples; it was only later that the Vada-Kailasam temple there was converted into an Amman shrine perhaps in the days of the Later Cholas.

Nilakanta Sastri, 2nd edition, p. There is no separate Amman shrine at all of the age of Rajendra I at Ennaviram. The earliest positive evidence that we have of the construction of an independent, separate Amman shrine different from the main shrine of Siva, is in respect of the Sivakami Amman shrine, otherwise known as the temple of Tinikkamakkottam- Udaiya Nachchiyar in the enlarged campus of the Nataraja temple at Chidambaram; this temple for the Amman was built during the period of the Later C.

In fact, this is the earliest instance of its kind in the whole of the Tamil country. Was it a processional image, made of copper? From an inscription on a pillar of the same west wing SIX, II, 88 , we gather that one Kanjan Kondaiyan, a native of Kamadamangalam in Purakkillivur nadu, a subdivision of Pandyakulasani valanadu, and a servant pani-maganar of Rajaraja devar and the master chief of the rent roll in the department Tinaikkalam of taxes levied from endowments Puravari-tinaikkalattu-varip-pottaga-nayakan , presented a bell-metal dish vengalal-laligai weighing 29 palams to the Parivaralayattup- Pillaiyar Ganapatiyar.